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ADV Bio Ch 5

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

TermDefinition
macromolecules A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction.
polymer A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
monomer The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
dehydration reaction A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
enzyme A macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
carbohydrate A sugar(monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides)
polysaccharide A polymer of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
lipids One of a group of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water.
fatty acid A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. Vary in length and number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also known as a triacylglycerol or triglyceride.
protein A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure.
amino acid An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of polypeptides.
gene A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
nucleic acid A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. 2 types are DNA and RNA.
DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T);
RNA (ribonucleic acid) A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single stranded;
nucleotides The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Created by: Mr.Devine
 

 



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