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Bio Genetics Vocab

Mitosis cell division resulting in two daughter cells
Chromosome a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Chromatid each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.
Somatic Cells any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
Cytokineses the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.
Apoptosis the death of cells that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.
Sister Cromatids pieces of identical DNA that are crucial in the process of cell replication and division.
Centromere the point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.
Spindle Fibre Any of a network of filaments that collectively form a mitotic spindle
Cell Plate a plate that develops at the midpoint between the two groups of chromosomes in a dividing cell and that is involved in forming the wall between the two new daughter cells.
Cleavage furrow the indentation of the cell's surface that begins the progression of cleavage, by which animal and some algal cells undergo cytokinesis
Meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell
Diploid containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Haploid having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
Crossing Over the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring
Independent assortment formation of random combinations of chromosomes in meiosis and of genes on different pairs of homologous chromosomes
Homologus Pair a pair of chromosomes containing a maternal and paternal chromatid joined to together at the centromere
Synapsis the fusion of chromosome pairs at the start of meiosis.
Gametes a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Nondisjunction the failure of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate normally during nuclear division
Alleles one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
Locus in genetics, is the specific location or position of a gene
Law of Segregation during the production of gametes the two copies of each hereditary factor segregate so that offspring acquire one factor from each parent
Law of Independent assoment when two or more characteristics are inherited, individual hereditary factors assort independently during gamete production
Dominant Allele An allele that expresses its phenotypic effect even when heterozygous with a recessive allele
Recessive Allele The first allele is dominant and the second allele is recessive. For genes on an autosome (any chromosome other than a sex chromosome), the alleles and their associated traits are autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. Dominance is a key concept in Me
Genotpe the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
Phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Homozygus a pair of matching alleles, which are the two genes that control a particular trait.
Heterozygus having the two genes at corresponding loci on homologous chromosomes different for one or more loci
Trait a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism that may be inherited, be environmentally determined or be a combination of the two
Mono-hybrid cross A monohybrid cross is a mating between two individuals with different alleles at one genetic locus of interest. The character(s) being studied in a monohybrid cross are governed by two or multiple alleles for a single locus.
One-Trait Test Cross A test cross is a way to explore the genotpye of an organism
Di-Hybrid Cross Dihybrid cross is a cross between two pure lines (varieties, strains) that differ in two observed traits. In Mendelian sense, between the alleles of both these loci there is a relationship of complete dominance - recessive.
Codominant Codominance is a relationship between two versions of a gene
Created by: 100002762148500