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AP GOV vocab list

AP GOV vocab list

TermDefinition
Executive Agreement An agreement with a foreign nation that does NOT require congressional approval
Delegate Model The idea that members of Congress should make the policies favored by their constituents
Party Coalition Groups of voters (EX: labor unions, ethnic minorities) who support one political party over time
Limited Government A government with constrained powers, usually by a constitution
Franchise/ suffrage The right to vote
Elite Democracy A theory that the wealthy have more influence
Retrospective Voting Voting for a candidate based on what he or she has done in the recent past
Equality of Opportunity The idea that the government should provide citizens with the same chance to succeed
Oversight When a congressional committee holds a hearing to determine how well an agency is performing
Equal Protection Clause Constitutional basis for civil rights and equality under the law
Categorical grants Money given by the national government to the states to be used for specific, narrowly defined purposes
Civil Rights Rights provided by the government to protect groups from discrimination
Pluralist Democracy A theory emphasizing group-based activism
Discharge Petition A procedure for getting a bill out of committee and onto the floor for a vote
Incumbency Advantage Those who already hold office are more likely to win than their challengers
Monetary Policy The governments' use of the money supply to influence economic growth
Rational-choice Voting Voting for a candidate because they will act in the voters' best interest
Party-line Voting Voting for candidates from one political party
Gerrymandering Drawing congressional district boundaries to benefit a group, usually a political party
Stare Decisis When a court follows precedent by allowing a previous court decision to stand
Individualism The belief that people should be self-reliant, free from state control, and responsible for their own success or failure
Mid-term Elections An election for members of Congress two years after a presidential election
Divided Government When the president is from one party and one or both houses of Congress are controlled by a different party
Block Grants Money given by the national government to the states to carry out a specific policy, with few restrictions about how it should be spent
Symbolic Speech Non-verbal expression protected by the First Amendment, such as wearing an armband
Closed Primary A vote to determine a party's candidate for office where only members registered to a political party are allowed to vote
Pocket Veto When the president doesn't sign a bill for 10 days, after Congress has adjourned
Filibuster An informal procedure used in the Senate to talk a bill to death
Independent Expenditure Money spent on ads not sponsored by a candidate or party
Popular Sovereignty The idea that the right to rule comes from the people
Political Socialization The process by which an individual develops his/her political beliefs
Proportional Representation A system for electing members of the legislature by voting for political parties, where seats are awarded to parties based on the percentage of votes received
Demographics The statistical characteristics of a population
"Lame Duck" president A president who is at the end of his second term or who has lost an election or decided not to run for a second term
Exclusionary Rule The rule that evidence obtained by authorities in violation of the Constitution may not be used in court
Executive Order A presidential statement that has the force of law and does not require congressional approval
Prospective Voting Voting for a candidate based on predictions about what the candidate will do in the future
Judicial Activism A philosophy that the Supreme Court should use its authority to make bold new policy
Trustee Model The idea that members of Congress should use their expertise and judgment in making policy
Open Primary A vote to determine a party's candidate for office where that party's members and unaffiliated voters may vote
Selective Incorporation The process by which the Bill of Rights has been applied to the states on a case-by-case basis through the 14th Amendment
Enumerated Powers Powers that are given to an institution of government directly in the Constitution
Bipartisan Legislation or policy that has the support of both major political parties
Due Process Clause Constitutional basis for individual liberties and fair treatment by the judicial system
Republicanism A form of government where people elect representatives to carry out their interests
Party Caucus Face-to-Face meeting of party members at the local or state level to pick their party's candidate for office
Conservative Ideology A political view that supports free enterprise and traditional social values
PAC An organization that is registered with the Federal Election Commission that donates money to a candidate or campaign
Reapportionment Redistributing legislative seats according to the population so that each district has roughly the same population
General Election An election for president, members of the House of Representatives, and 1 / 3 of the Senate
Signing Statement Signing a bill with a written statement that the executive will not carry out a portion of the bill
Linkage Institutions Elections, interest groups, political parties, and the media
Civil Liberties Individual rights protected by law from unjust government interference
Judicial Restraint A philosophy that the Supreme Court should limit itself to constitutional interpretation and avoid making bold new policy
Miranda Rule Policy requiring police to inform suspects in custody of their rights
Critical Election An election where new coalitions of voters have formed, beginning a new party era
Issue Network/ Iron Triangle The relationship between a congressional committee or subcommittee, an interest group, and bureaucratic agency regarding a policy area
Realignment When voters leave one of the major political parties and join the other major political party
Redistricting Redrawing congressional district boundaries based on a new census
Cloture A vote by 60 senators to end unlimited debate
Political Ideology An individual's set of beliefs about the role of government
Natural Rights Humans are entitled to Life, Liberty, and Property
Budget Deficit An annual shortfall between federal revenues and expenses
Hold in the Senate A procedure to prevent a bill from reaching the floor
Free Enterprise The idea that businesses should operate in competition, relatively free from government control
Revenue Sharing When the national government distributes tax revenues to the states to spend as they see fit
Constituency The voters in a district or state who are represented by a member of Congress
Implied Powers Powers that are necessary to carry out an expressed power in the Constitution, such as the power of Congress to establish a national bank
Politico Model The idea that members of Congress sometimes use their judgment and sometimes follow the wishes of their constituents in making policy
Defamatory Speech An untrue statement that damage's someone's reputation, which is not protected by the 1st Amendment
Winner-take-all System A system for electing members of the legislature where the person who receives the plurality of votes is awarded the single seat available
Logrolling When members of Congress trade votes for favors in order to get bills they support passed
Mandates When the national government requires the states to do something
Keynesian Theory A theory that the government should spend money during economic recessions to stimulate demand in the economy
Super PAC An organization whose members need not be disclosed that may donate unlimited amounts of money to a candidate or campaign
Liberal Ideology A political view that government should protect individual freedom and civil rights
Unanimous Consent An agreement, usually among congressional leaders, setting the terms for considering a bill
Horse Race Journalism The tendency of the media to focus on which candidate is ahead in the polls rather than focusing on the issues
Discretionary Spending Spending on programs not already required by law
Rule of Law The idea that everyone, including government officials, is subject to well-defined and established laws that are not arbitrary
Concurrent Powers Authority that is shared between the national and state governments
Fiscal Policy The government's use of taxing and spending to influence economic growth
Exclusive Powers Authority that is given only to the national or state governments
Social Contract An agreement between the people, who give up some freedom, in exchange for protection from the government
Supply-side Theory The theory that government should cut taxes to stimulate economic growth
Entitlement Programs A program for which funding is required that provides guaranteed benefits to those who qualify, regardless of income
Pork Barrel Legislation A provision in a bill that benefits a relatively small group of people
Mandatory Spending Spending that is required under the law, such as Medicare and interest on the national debt
Participatory Democracy A theory emphasizing broad citizen involvement in government
Federalism A system of government where power is shared between the national government and the states and where the states have some protected
Created by: verchteach