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Cell Respiration

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Chloroplasts site of the Calvin Cycle
Cuticle The waxy top layer of the leaf that prevents water loss.
autotroph Organisms that make their own food.
heterotroph Organisms that must seek out food sources.
ATP A chemical compound that is used by cells to store and release energy.
Photosynthesis The process by which autotrophs create food.
Pigment Light-absorbing/reflecting molecules. Responsible for the colour of plants
Chlorophyll Plant pigment (Chlorophyll A-absorbs blue light; Chlorophyll B-absorbs red light). Neither can absorb green light very well.
Thylakoid Saclike photosynthetic membranes.
Photosystems Proteins in the thylakoid membrane that organize chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters
Stroma The region outside the thylakoid membranes.
NADP+ Takes in and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion.
Light-Dependent Reactions Reactions that require light to function
ATP Synthase A protein that spans the membrane and allows H ions to pass through.
Calvin Cycle Uses ATP and NADPH from light dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars.
Calorie The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water, 1 degree.
Glycolysis A pathway that releases only a small amount of energy, unless oxygen is present, which then leads to two energy pathways.
Cellular Respiration The process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules. 6O2 +C6H12O6.....6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
NAD+ A reactant of glycolysis; releases four high energy electrons and passes them to an electron carrier,
Fermentation Releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen.
Anaerobic Reaction Does not require oxygen
Aerobic Reaction Requires oxygen
Krebs Cycle Second stage of cellular respiration; in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions.
Fermentation A reaction that releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen.
Alcoholic Fermentation Anaerobic reaction that takes pyruvic acid + NADH...alcohol + CO2 + NAD+
Lactic Acid Fermentation pyruvic acid + NADH....lactic acid + NAD+
Pyruvic Acid The result of glycolysis, in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of this reactant.
Krebs Cycle Pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy extracting reactions.
Electron Transport Chain Converts ADP to ATP from the carriers of the Kreb cycle.
Created by: erichholzshu