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Diversity Of Life: 4

A deck of flashcards for Undergraduate Study of Biology. Source: Wikipedia

Kingdom Highest taxonomic category.
Phylum Taxonomic category for organisms organisms with of similar properties.
Class Subgroups of the taxonomic category under the same phylum.
Order Taxonomic category for organisms with different aggregate of character.
Family Taxonomic category for organisms with related genre.
Genus Taxonomic category for organisms with common features.
Species Smallest taxonomic unit.
What are the 5 Kingdoms present? Monera, Protista, Animalia, Fungi and Plantae.
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) The father of taxonomy. Causes the existence of the 8 taxa and the two word naming system known as binomial nomenclature.
Binomial nomenclature Two word naming system by first stating the genus (latin noun, capitalized) and then the species (latin adjective, small letters).
What are the similarities between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes? Both have the same basic function, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes for protein production and DNA.
What are the differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes? Prokaryotes are smaller, less complex, has no true nucleus, circular DNA, no organelles and are surrounded by cell wall. The sizes of the ribosome in prokaryotes are 70S while eukaryote have 80S ribosomes.
Micron/Micrometer 10^-6 meters
Nanometer 10^-9 meters
Plasma membrane A bipolar double layer of phospholipids and protein. Contains hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails.
What are the differences in the cell walls of both plants and fungi? Plant cell walls are made of cellulose while fungi cell walls are made of chitin.
Cytoplasm Cell medium made of a fluid called cytosol.
What are the earliest cells? Chemoheterotroph which absorbed free organic compounds such as ATP.
What happens once ATP begins depleting in early earth? Natural selection would favor organisms that can produce its own ATP. It further leads in the evolution of glycolysis.
Cyanobacteria A bacterium that uses H2O insteand of H2S. Known as blue-green algae, an algae that exists in marine ecosystems.
What are the 3 domains? Domain bacteria, Domain archae and Domain eukarya.
Domain archae Unique organisms that commonly inhabit extreme environments. There are 3 subgroups of archaea which are methanogen, halophiles and thermophiles.
Methanogens Makes use of H2 to reduce CO2 into CH4 (methane). Commonly anaerobic.
Halophiles Commonly found in areas of high salinity (salt concentrations). Has a photosynthetic pigment called bacteriorhodopsin.
Thermophiles Commonly found in areas of high temperatures.
How do you test for gram (+)ve and gram (-)ve in domain bacteria? Use the gram staining test where the gram (+)ve will result in a lilac stain and gram (-)ve will result in a red stain shown in the cell wall.
Viruses Virus, for "Poison" in latin, are a sub-microscopic entity consisting of a single nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat. It is biologically inert and is only capable of replication in a host cell.
Transmission of viruses It may be respiratory, faecal-oral, blood borne, sexual or through a vector.
What are the 2 cycles viruses may undergo? Lytic and lysogenic cycles.
Lytic cycle It is when there is a phage, where DNA is made for the mass production of viruses.
Lysogenic cycle It is when there is a phrophage where DNA for the production of viruses become integrated into the cell DNA that may be copied into daughter cells until it reaches phage.
Latent viruses Viruses that may remain dormant for a long period of time before activating.
Rectroviruses Complex viruses which contains RNA instead of DNA. It produces DNA for mRNA production through the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
Viroids Circular RNA molecules without a protein coat.
Prions Infectious protein with no RNA or DNA that causes insoluble deposits in the brain.
Lichens The symbiotic relationship where cyanobacteria or algae lives among the filaments of fungi. Lichens are often very sensitive of areas of high pollution.
Hyphae Tiny filaments found in fungi.
Mycelium Interwoven mats of hyphae.
What are the types of Fungi? Oomychota, zygomychota, basidiomychota, ascomychota, chytridiomychota and AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal).
How does fungi reproduce? They reproduce through spores, either asexually, sexually or both.
What are the 3 possible roles of fungi as decomposers? Saprobic (dead host), parasitic (living host) or mutualistic (symbiotic).
Created by: theecloud



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