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Bio. Vocab. Ch. 8

Autosome Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Centromere The region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
Chromatid One of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosis
Diploid A cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes
Haploid Describes a cell, nucleus, or organism that has only one set of unpaired chromosomes
Homologous Chromosome Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis
Anaphase A phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the chromosomes separate
Binary Fission A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
Cell Cycle A repeating set of events in the life of a cell
Cell Plate The precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two
Histone A type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells
Centrosome Contains centrioles and move toward opposite poles of the cell during prophase
Cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasma of a cell
G1 Phase The first stage of interphase, where offspring cells grow to mature size
G2 Phase A time during which the cell prepares for cell division
Interphase A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins
Meiosis A process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
Mitosis In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
Prophase The first stage of mitosis and meiosis in cell division
S Phase The second phase in Interphase where DNA is copied (synthesized)
Telophase The final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
Crossing Over The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis
Gamete A haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote
Asexual Reproduction Reproduction that doesn't involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
Oogenesis The production, growth, and maturation of an egg or ovum
Spermatogenesis The process by which male gametes form
Metaphase One of the stages of mitosis and meiosis, during which all of the chromosomes move to the cell's equator
Created by: archergirl