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Chapter 13

Principles of Ecology

Ecology the study of the interaction among living things, and between living things and their surroundings
Community A group of different species that live together in one area, such as groups of alligators, turtles, birds, fish, and plants that live together in the Florida Everglades
Biome A major regional or global community of organisms
Biotic Factors that are living things, such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria
Abiotic Factors that are nonliving things such as moisture, temperature, wind, sunlight, and soil
Biodiversity the assortment of variety of living things in an ecosystem
Keystone species species that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem
Producers organisms that get their energy from nonliving resources; they make their own food
Autotrophs Another name for producer
Consumers organisms that get their energy by eating other living or once-living resources such as plants and animals
Heterotrophs Another word for consumer
Chemosynthesis process by which an organism forms carbohydrates using chemicals, rather than light, as an energy source
Food Chain sequence that links species by their feeding relationships
Herbivores organisms that only eat plants
Carnivores organisms that only eat animals
Omnivores organisms that eat plants and animals
Detritivores organisms that eat dead organic matter
Decomposers detritivores that break down organic matter into simpler compounds
Specialist consumer that primarily eats one specific organism or feeds on a very small number of organisms
Generalists consumers with varying diets
Trophic levels levels of nourishment in a food chain
Food web model that shows the complex work of feeding relationships and the flow of energy within and sometimes beyond an ecosystem
Hydrologic cycle circular pathway of water on Earth from the atmosphere, to the surface, below ground, and back
Biogeochemical cycle movement of a particular chemical through the biological and geological, or loving and nonliving, parts of the ecosystem
Nitrogen Fixation Certain types of bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen into ammonia through a process called ______
Biomass measure of the total dry mass of organisms in a given area
Energy Pyramid diagram that compares energy used by producers, primary consumers, and distributed among trophic levels in an ecosystem
Created by: tuohybio1415