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Bio: Unit 4


DNA Double Stranded, made of subunits called nucleotides.
What 3 parts do nucleotides have? 1. sugar 2. Phosphate 3. Nitrogen containing base
Name the 4 nitrogen containing bases. 1. adenine 2. guanine 3. cytosine 4. thymine
Are adenine and guanine purines or pyrimidines? Purines
Are cytosine and thymine pyrimidines or purines? Pyrimidines
What are purines? 2 rings of carbon & nitrogen atoms.
What are pyrimidines? 1 ring of carbon & nitrogen atoms
What did Watson & Crick do? DNA is made of 2 nucleotide chains
Replication Copying of DNA
Mutation Change in sequence
RNA Nucleic acid, single stranded, uracil replaces thymine.
Sugar= Ribose
How many types of RNA are there? 3
Messenger RNA Carries genetic info from DNA to the nucleus
Transfer RNA Binds to specific amino acids
Ribosomal RNA Makes up the ribosomes.
Transcription Genetic info is copied from DNA to RNA
Genetic Code Relationship between nucleotide sequence & amino acid seq.
Codon every 3 letters in a mRNA seq.
Translation Assembling polypeptides from info encoded in the mRNA
Where does mNA migrate to? Ribosomes
Mutation Change in DNA
Chromosomal Mutation Change in structure
How many types of chom. mutation are there? 5
Deletion A piece of a chrom is lost
Invertion Chrom. seg. breaks off and reattaches backwards
Duplication Seq. is repeated
Translocation 2 chrom that aren't homologous
Nondisjunction Failure of chrom to separate.
Gene mutation mutation of the genes
Genetic enginering altering and cloning genes
DNA extraction Chemical treatments that cause cells to burst
Use of restriction enzymes? Used as "siccors" to cut DNA
DNA seq Used to determine order of nucleotides
Cloning Genetically identical cells
Recombninant DNA DNA from 2 or more sources that is incorporated into a single recombinate molecule
Transgenics Genome has been altered by the transfer of a gene.
Gene therapy insertion of genes into a persons cells