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Human Nutrition

Leaving Certificate Biology

Autotrophic An organism that makes it own food
Heterotropic An organism that gets it food from the environment
Herbivores Eats plants
Carnivores Eats other animals
Omnivores Eats both plants and animals
Mechanical Digestion Physical break down of food i.e, mouth, stomach
Chemical Digestion Breaking down of food by enzymes and stomach acid i.e. Mouth, stomach
Why we need a digestive system A digestive system allow all the materials needed to process food to be located in a single place
Alimentary Canal Long tube from mouth to anus
Ingestion Taking food into the body
Digestion Breaking down of food
Absorption Movement if digested food from the gut into the blood stay by diffusion
Egestion Removal of unabsorbed food from the body
Incisors Uses for biting
Canines Used for tearing
Premolars Used for chewing
Molars Used for chewing
What is saliva consisted of Water Salts Amylase Lysozyme
Peristalsis Muscular contracting of the gut
Fibre To prevent constipation we get it in fruit and vegetables and it reduces risk of colon cancer
Stomach Stores food
Structure of the stomach Lining of the stomach is heavily folded into millions of gastric glands.
The three types of cells that make the gastric glands 1.Goblet cells 2. Zyomogen cells 3. Oxyntic cells
Goblet cells Secretes mucous to prevent the stomach from digesting itself
Zyomogen cells Secretes pepsinogen inactive form of pepsin
Oxyntic cells Secretes HCl ( hydrochloride acid) kills bacteria
Gastric juices Mucous, Pepsinogen and HCl
Heartburn When HCl is over produces and moves up the Oesophagus
Ulcers When mucous doesn't properly line the stomach and HCl burns a hole in it
Three parts of the small intestine 1. Duodenum 2. Illeum 3. Jejenum
Duodenum It is used for digestion and has many villi and microvilli which increases surface area for digestion
Liver Produces bile Breaks excess protein down into urea Stores iron and vitamins Emulsifies fat
Pancreas Secretes insulin, produces sodium bicarbonate which neutralises chyme and also produces amylase and lipase which are sent to the duodenum
Gall bladder Stores bile
Bile duct Transports bile from gall bladder to the duodenum
When bile Emulsifies fat Breaks them down into small droplets and this increases surface area for digestion
When bile contains NaHCO4 It neutralises chyme from the stomach
Illeum It is used for absorption, it has many villi. It has a villus wall which is only one cell thick and rich blood supply inside each villus
Hepatic portal vein Transports nutrients such as amino acids or glucose from ilium to the liver
Hepatic vein Transports wastes like urea to the kidney
Lacteals This is located inside each villus and contains lymph which cleans blood. It absorbs fatty acids and glycerol and reform them into fats. The lymph then transports them back into the blood stream
Colon Reabsorb water and forms faeces
Probiotic Good bacteria
Symbiotic bacteria Baceria that lives in another organism where at least one of them benefits
Uses of symbiotic bacteria Breaks down fibre Produces vitimins Fights bad bacteria
Amylase Converts starch to maltose, it is secreted in the salivary glands, where it works is in the mouth and the pH7
Pepsin It converts protein to peptides, it is secreted in the stomach lining, we're is acts is the stomach and it has a pH of 2
Lipase It converts lipids which is fatty acids and glycerol, it is secreted in the pancreas, it acts in the duodenum and pH7
Balance diet A balance diet contains all food types in appropriate amounts. The total intake of food by a person is depended on their age, activity levels, gender and health
Four food groups 1. Cereals, bread, potatoes 2. Fruit and vegtables 3. Milk, cheese, yogurt 4. Meat, fish, poultry
Created by: Tidgh.Maguire17