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SLS Bio 11 Genetics

SLS Bio 11 Genetics CP

TermDefinition
Allele Different form of a gene, they occur during the same locus on homologous chromosomes.
Autosome Any type of chromosomes except for the sex chromosomes.
Codominance A pattern of inheritance when both alleles of a gene are equally expressed.
Dihybrid One individual that is heterozygous for two traits; it shows the phenotype by the dominant alleles but carries the recessive alleles.
Dominant allele An allele that gets its phenotypic effect in the heterozygote; it receives the expression of the recessive allele.
Genotype Genes of a individual of a particular train or trait, designated often by letters such as BB or Aa.
Heterozygous Having two different alleles for a given trait.
Homozygous Having identical alleles for a given trait, free breeding.
Monohybrid Individual for one trait that is heterozygous; the phenotype of the dominant allele but carries the recessive allele.
Multiple allele Inheritance pattern where there are more than two alleles for a particular trait; every individual only has two possible alleles.
Phenotype Different appearance of the organism caused by genotype and environmental influences.
Punnet square Gridlike device that is used to calculate the results of simple genetic crosses.
Recessive allele Hereditary factor that show itself as a phenotype only when it is the genotype.
Sex chromosomes Chromosomes that determine the sex of a human being.
Sex-linked trait Allele that happens on the sex chromosomes but can sometimes control a trait that has nothing to do with sexual characteristics.
Test cross The cross between an individual with dominant phenotype and an individual that has a recessive phenotype. The phenotypic ratio after indicates if the dominant phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous.
Apoptosis Cells that are no longer needed or are a threat to the organism are destroyed.
Cell Cycle Series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and replication that produces two daughter cells in prokaryotes.
Centromere Part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids during mitosis attaches to spindle fibers.
Chromatin DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Chromosomes Thread-like structures located inside the nucleus, formed of protein and a single molecule.
Crossing-over Process where homologous chromosomes pair up with each other and exchange different segments of their genetic material to form recombined chromosomes.
Cytokinesis Process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm.
Diploid (2n) chromosome number Cell or organism that has paired chromosomes, one from each parent.
Gamete Organism's reproductive cells they are also called a sex cells.
Haploid (n) chromosome number Half the usual number of chromosomes.
Homologous chromosomes Similar but not identical, each carries the same genes.
Meiosis Process to convert a diploid cell to a haploid gamete.
Mitosis Cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes.
Nondisjunction Failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division.
Somatic cell Any cell of the body except sperm and egg cells.
Synapsis Pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis.
Created by: cphilip