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Science Vocab

Chapter 3

Cell Theory Theory that states that all organisms are made of cells, all cells are produced by other living cells, and the cell is the most basic unit of life.
Cytoplasm Jellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules and in some cells organelles.
Organelle Membrane-bound structure that is specialized to perform a distinct process with a cell.
Prokaryotic Cell Cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
Eukaryotic Cell Cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
Cytoskeleton Network of proteins, such as microtubules and microfilaments, inside inside a eukaryotic cell that supports and shapes the cell.
Nucleus (plural: nuclei) organelle composed of a double membrane that acts as the storehouse for most of the cell's DNA.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Interconnected network of thin, folded membranes that produce, process, and distribute proteins.
Ribosome Organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins.
Golgi Appartus Stack of flat, membrane-enclosed spaces containing enzymes that process, sort, and deliver proteins.
Vesicle Small organelle that contains and transports materials within cytoplasm.
Mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria) bean-shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA.
Vacuole Organelle that is used to store materials, such as water, food, or enzymes, that are needed by the cell.
Lysosome Organelle that contains enyzmes.
Centriole Small cylinder-shaped organelle made of protein tubes arranged in a circle; aids mitosis.
Cell Wall Rigid structure that gives protection, support, and shape to cells in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria.
Chloroplast Organelle composed of numerous membranes that are used to convert solar energy into chemical energy; contains chlorophyll.
Cell Membrane Double-layer of phospholipids that forms a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell.
Phospholipid Molecule that forms a double-layered cell membrane; consists of a glycerol, a phosphate group, and two fatty acids.
Fluid Mosaic Model Model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane.
Selective Permeability Condition or quality of allowing some, but not all, materials to cross a barrier or membrane.
Receptor Protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response.
Passive Transport Movement of molecules across the cell membrane without energy input from the cell.
Diffusion Movement of dissolved molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Concentration Gradient Difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another.
Osmosis Diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from one area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.
Isotonic Solution that has equal concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.
Hypertonic Solution that has higher concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.
Hypotonic Solution that has lower concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution,.
Facilitated Diffusion Diffusion of molecules assisted by protein channels that pierce a cell membrane.
Active Transport Energy-requiring movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration.
Endocytosis Uptake of liquids or large molecules into a cell by inward folding of the cell membrane.
Phagocytosis Uptake of a solid particle into a cell by engulfing the particle; see endocytosis.
Exocytosis Release of substances out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane.
Created by: 58knasims