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M.A.B. Point 1

Vocab associated with Maintaining a Balance- HSC Biology

enzyme Highly specialized protein that reduces amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction, increasing the speed of the reaction
metabolism All of the biochemical reactions occurring in the cells of the body
Enzyme models: Lock and Key; Induced Fit Mechanisms for enzyme mechanisms- lock and key: instant fit; induced fit: enzyme changes shape when substrate binds
pH describes the acidity of a substance
homeostasis Tendency in organisms towards maintenance of physiological stability
stimulus-response pathway stimulus--> receptor --> control centre --> effector --> response
nervous system The system of nerves and nerve centres in an animal
nervous system and feedback mechanism sensory neurones- takes signal from the receptor to control center. relaying neurones- takes signal around control center. motor neurones- takes signal from control center to effector
ectotherms Organisms that change their body temperature by using heat from environment
endotherms Organisms that regulate their own body temperature using heat generated from their metabolism
Australian endotherms kangaroo, bandicoot
Australian ectotherms brown snake, blue tongue lizard
optimum enzyme conditions For optimal efficiency- specific temperatures, pH and amount of substrate are needed
positive feedback mechanism enhance or amplify changes e.g. contractions during birth
negative feedback mechanism conteracts changes to return to a stable, maintained level e.g. responding to temperature
plant responses to temperature change sunken stomata, leaf orientation, leaf fall
structural adaptations physical features of an organism e.g. feathers
behavioural adaptations behaviours of an organism e.g. hibernation
physiological adaptations permit an organism to perform special functions e.g. shivering
denatured structural change in proteins that cause destruction of the active site
active site a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction
evaporative cooling removing heat from body by changing liquid water to water vapour using heat from skin (sweating) OR from respiratory surfaces (panting)
metabolic pathway Series of step-wise chemical reactions, each governed by an enzyme. e.g. Cellular Respiration; Photosynthesis are metabolic pathways
rate of reaction Speed at which a reaction proceeds. Measured by: amount of substrate used up or products formed in a given amount of time
vasodilation When we are too hot the blood vessels supplying warm blood to the skin become enlarged or dilated
vasoconstriction When we are too cold the blood vessels supplying warm blood to the skin become narrow or constrict
ambient environmental or surrounding (e.g. ambient temperature)
Stimulus- response example Stimulus: Increase temperature Receptor: Thermoreceptor in skin (via sensory neurones to) Control center: Hypothalamus (in brain) (via motor neurones to) Effector: Sweat glands activated Response: Sweat produced & evaporative cooling takes place
Created by: kaylee_89