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Life Sci Chap 5

study guide

QuestionAnswer
Who is the father of genetics? Gregor Mendel
The passing of genetic traits from parents to offspring is called what? heredity
Gregor Mendel is from where? Austria
What plant did Mendel use for his study? pea plants
What is self-pollination? A plant that has both male and female reproductive structures.
How can an organism cross pollinate? Pollen from one plant fertilizes the ovule of a flower on a different plant. (insects, wind, humans)
What are the advantages of self-pollination? Because eggs and sperm from the same plant combine to make a new plant. It's faster than cross pollination
What are the advantages of cross pollination? Different traits can be introduced to make a better plant. (diversity)
What is a trait? The different forms of a characteristic in a population. (ex: hair color is a characteristic, brown or blonde hair is a trait)
A trait observed causing other traits not to be present is... dominant trait
A trait that is not observed or hidden recessive trait
One set of instructions for an inherited trait genes
One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as eye color? allele
A physical characteristic in a trait phenotype (organisms' appearance)
The alleles of a trait, which make the genetic makeup of an organism genotype
What tool allows a person to discover the probability of traits? Punnett square (Mendel came up with this)
What is incomplete dominance? When one trait is not completely dominant over the other
Give examples of multiple traits where several genes act together to make one characteristic. hair color, skin color, height, eye color, ear shapes (because each allele has its own degree of influence)
Offspring produced by one parent is called? self pollination or asexual reproduction - mitosis
Two parent cells joining together is called? Sexual reproduction/ meiosis - cross pollination
What is meiosis? copying process that produces cells with half the usual number of chromosomes
Explain the difference between mitosis and meiosis Mitosis is cell division (becomes two cells) of body cells except sex cells; Meiosis is the division of sex cells (becomes 4). ESSAY Question
How many cells are created by meiosis? Four
What happens during prophase? Each chromosome makes an exact copy of itself; chromosomes then thicken and shorten - making them visible with a microscope. Nuclear membrane disappears
What happens during metaphase? Similiar chromosomes pair up with one another and line up at the equator of the cell (equator is the middle)
What happens during anaphase? Chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell.
What happens during telophase? Nuclear membrane reforms around the separate chromosomes and the cell divides
A pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual? X and X, (female) or X and Y(male) - 23rd chromosome
Sex-linked traits occur on what type of chromosome? an X chromosome (23rd chromosome)
What is the sex chromosome of a male? Xy
What is the sex chromosome of a female? XX
What is the difference between a body cell and a sex cell? Body cells undergo mitosis and sex cells undergo meiosis ESSAY
Calculate a RR x rr cross for rolled tongue verses non-rolled tongue. What is the genotype of the offspring and what is the phenotype of the offspring? Genotype should be all Rr - phenotype should all be rolled tongues
If you cross a Rr x Rr what will the offspring's phenotype and genotype be? phenotype is 3 rolled tongue and 1 non-rolled; genotype is 1:2:1 (1-RR, 2-Rr, 1-rr)
What is something Mendel realized in his experiments? that each trait had 2 sets of instructions - one set from each parent
What is another thing he discovered? that recessive traits reappear in the second generation
What is the diagram that is used to trace through generations of a family? A pedigree
What are sex cells? egg and sperm
Created by: msparks