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Periodontics II

Wilkins CH. 4

QuestionAnswer
Aerosol An artificially generated collection of particles suspended in air.
Microbial Aerosol Suspension of particles in the air that consists partially or wholly of microorganisms; it may be capable of causing an infection.
Anergy Diminished reactivity to specific antigen(s); inability to react to skin-test antigen (even if person is infected with the organism tested) because of immunosuppression.
Antibody A soluble protein molecule produced and secreted by body cells in response to an antigen; it is capable of binding to the specific antigen.
Antigen A substance that is capable, under appropriate conditions, of inducing a specific immune response and of reacting with the products of that response, that is, with the specific antibody.
Carrier A person who harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernable clinical disease and serves as a potential source of infection. The carrier state may be temporary, transient, or chronic.
Asymptomatic Carrier An individual who harbors pathogenic organisms without clinically recognizable symptoms; a carrier may infect those contacted.
CDCP United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA 30333.
CFU Colony-forming unit
Communicable Period of a Disease The time during which an infectious agent may be transferred directly or indirectly from an infected person to another person; the communicable period may include or overlap the incubation period.
Droplet Diminutive drop, such as the particles of moisture expelled while coughing, sneezing, or speaking, that may carry infectious agents.
ELISA or EIA An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; a laboratory test to detect antibody in the blood serum.
Western blot A laboratory test for antibody that is more specific than EIA and is used to validate seropositive reactions to the EIA.
Endemic The constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a geographic area.
Epidemic Widespread occurrence of cases of an illness in a community or region; greater than the expected number of cases for the particular population.
Fomite or Fomes An inanimate object or material on which disease-producing agents (microorganisms) may be conveyed.
HCP Healthcare personnel
DHCP Dental healthcare personnel
Healthcare-associated infection An infection associated with or acquired during a medical or surgical intervention; replaces nosocomial, which is limited to an adverse infectious outcome occurring in a hospital.
Herpes Simplex 1 skin related Viruses: Herpes Gladiatorum: Infection transmitted by skin contact among wrestlers and other athletes. Incidence as high as 3% has been reported among high school wrestlers.
Herpes Barbae Herpes simplex spread over the bearded part of the face due to minor injuries of daily shaving or contamination from razor.
Immunity The resistance that a person has against disease; it may be natural or acquired.
Passive Immunity Short-duration immunity either naturally attained by transplacental transfer from the mother or artificially acquired by inoculation of specific protective antibodies.
Active Immunity Immunity naturally attained by infection, with or without clinical manifestations, or artificially acquired by inoculation of the agent in a killed, modified, or variant form; in response, the body produces its own antibodies; usually lasts for years.
Incubation Period The time interval between the initial contact with an infectious agent and the appearance of the first clinical sign or symptom of the disease.
Infection A state caused by the invasion, development, or multiplication of an infectious agent into the body.
Primary Infection First time; no preexisting antibodies.
Latent Infection Persistent infection following a primary infection in which the causative agent remains inactive within certain cells.
Recurrent Infection Symptomatic reactivation of a latent infection.
Infectious Agent Organism capable of producing an infection.
Jaundice Yellowness of skin, sclerae, mucous membranes, and excretions due to hyperbilirubinrmia and deposition of bile pigments.
Microbiota The microscopic living organisms of a region.
Pandemic Widespread epidemic usually affecting the population of an extensive region, several countries, or sometime the entire globe.
Parenteral Injection by a route other than the alimentary tract, such as subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous.
Parotitis Inflammation of the parotid gland.
Pathogen A virus, microorganism, or other substance that causes disease.
Opportunistic Pathogen Capable of causing disease only when the host’s resistance is lowered.
Percutaneous By way of, or through, the skin.
Permucosal By way of, or through, a mucous membrane.
Prion Abnormal infectious protein particle lacking nucleic acid that has been implicated as the cause of certain neurodegenerative diseases.
Prodrome Early or premonitory symptoms
Replication Process by which viruses reproduce and multiply
Retrovirus Virus with RNA as its core genetic material; requires the enzyme reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into proviral DNA.
Risk Population Group having an increased prevalence of infection, increased chances or likelihood of infection, and increased prevalence of disease carriers.
Serologic Diagnosis The identification of a disease by serum markers of that specific condition.
Seroconversion After exposure to the etiologic agent of a disease, the blood changes from negative (“seronegative”) to positive (“seropositive”) for the serum marker for that disease; the time interval for conversion is specific for each disease.
Serum Maker A specific finding (such as an antibody or antigen) by laboratory blood analysis that identifies and existing disease state.
Shedding (viral) Presence of virus in body secretions, in excretions, or in body surface lesions with potential for transmission.
Standard Precautions An approach to infection control to protect DHCP and patients from pathogens that can be spread by blood or any other body fluid, secretion, or excretion (except sweat), regardless of whether they contain blood.
STD Sexually transmitted disease.
Surveillance (of disease) Continuing scrutiny of all aspects of occurrence and spread of a disease that are pertinent to effective control.
Susceptible Host Host not possessing resistance against and infectious agent.
Transmission (horizontal) Passage of an infectious agent from one individual to another.
Transmission (vertical) Passage of an infectious agent from one generation to another by breast milk or across the placenta.
Universal Precautions An approach to infection control in which all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV, and other blood-borne pathogens.
Vector A carrier that transfers an infectious microorganism from one host to another.
Biologic Vector An arthropod, insect, or other living carrier in whose body the infecting organism multiplies before becoming infective to the recipient.
Vehicle A substance or object that serves as an intermediate means by which an infectious agent is transported and introduced into a susceptible host through a suitable portal of entry.
Virion Complete virus particle made up of the nucleoid (the genetic material) and capsid (the shell of protein that protects the nucleoid)
Virulence The degree of pathogenicity or disease-evoking power of an infectious agent.
Virus A subcellular genetic entity capable of gaining entrance into a limited range of living cells and capable of replication only within such cells; a virus contains either DNA or RNA but not both.
Window Period The time between exposure resulting in infection and the presence of detectable serum antibody; antibody test is negative but infectious agent is transmissible during the window period.
Created by: daisenmurray