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Bio 12 Transport

Active Transport Active transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane in the direction against some gradient or other obstructing factor (often a concentration gradient).
Carrier Proteins Channel proteins facilitate the diffusion of different molecules, while carrier proteins are involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
Cell Membrane the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
Channel Proteins A channel protein is a protein that allows the transport of specific substances across a cell membrane.
Concentration Gradeient The formal definition of concentration gradient is the process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area of higher number of particles to an area of lower number of particles.
Diffusion Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.
Endocytosis Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
Exocytosis Exocytosis is a process in which an intracellular vesicle (membrane bounded sphere) moves to the plasma membrane and subsequent fusion of the vesicular membrane and plasma membrane ensues. Many cellular processes involve exocytosis.
Facilitated Transport Facilitated diffusion is the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.
Fluid-Mosaic Membrane Model a conceptual model of cell membrane and its boundary as a tightly packed double layer of phospholipid molecules interspersed with protein molecules which aid cross-membrane transport
Glycolipid Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond. Their role is to provide energy and also serve as markers for cellular recognition. The carbohydrates are found on the outer surface of all eukaryotic cell membranes.
Glycoprotein Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains. The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification.
Hydrophilic Hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules are also known as polar molecules and nonpolar molecules, respectively. Some hydrophilic substances do not dissolve.
Hydrophobic the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water. (Strictly speaking, there is no repulsive force involved; it is an absence of attraction.)
Hypertonic hypertonic solution is one where the concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside it
Hypotonic A hypotonic solution is one in which the concentration of solutes is greater inside the cell than outside of it
isotonic which the concentration of solutes is the same both inside and outside of the cell
Osmosis Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Passive Transport Process Passive transport is a movement of biochemicals and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input
Phagocytosis In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome.
Phospholipid generally consists of two hydrophobic fatty acid "tails" and a hydrophilic "head" consisting of amponents are joined together by a glycerol molecule
Phospholipid Bilayer Lipid bilayer is a universal component of all cell membranes. The structure is called a "lipid bilayer" because it composed of two layers of fatty acids organized in two sheets.
Pinocytosis pinocytosis otherwise known as cell drinking, fluid endocytosis, and bulk-phase pinocytosis, is a mode of endocytosis in which small particles are brought into the cell, forming an invagination, and then suspended within small vesicles.
Pressure Gradient difference in pressure between two adjoining regions
Selectively Permeable built-in capacity of a cell membrane to prevent or allow specific substances from crossing it at certain times, in certain amounts
Tonicity Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient (as defined by the water potential of the two solutions) of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Created by: Robbieyelland