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Anatomy: The Cell

QuestionAnswer
Do Cells have the same organelles and same cell types? No, Cells have the same organelles, but these organelles predominate in different cell types. Ex. there are my lysosomal cells in kidney cell organelles.
Plasma Membrane thin Trilaminar (three-layered) sheet. Consists of proteins and lipids 1. determines what gets in and out of cell 2. Some proteins in PM receptors, receiving chemical signals from outside the cell, cell2cell 3. Slight protection
Cholesterol in Plasmamembranes Cholesterol is a lipid stabilize the membrane so that it will not break up into little sacs
Glycocalyx (Cell Coat) coat of sugar chains 1. Makes cells sticky for temporary adhesion to other cells 2. Each cell type has distinct arrangement of sugars in glycocalyx, almost like a fingerprint 3. Thick enough to protect plasmalemma and cell
Unit Membrane? is the general name for all bi/trilayered membranes of plasmalemma and internal membranes Internal membranes have no glycocalyx
Cytosol (Cytoplasmic Matrix) shapeless part of cytoplasm in spaces between cellular organelles Contains WATER, IONS, other SMALL MOLECULES, ENZYMES, etc. Makes up 1/2 volume of cytoplasm in cell
Ribosomes Appear as small dark circles in EM pics Shaped like 2 part body of acorn Made up of RNA bound to protein Synthesize cell's proteins thru amino acids to protein chains occur free or attached to RER
RER Consist of cisterns and some tubes or little spheres. Lined by Unit Membrane Well developed in cells that secrete and develop proteins (e.g.pancreas) 1.
Cisterns
Do Cells have the same organelles and same cell types? No, Cells have the same organelles, but these organelles predominate in different cell types. Ex. there are my lysosomal cells in kidney cell organelles.
Plasma Membrane thin Trilaminar (three-layered) sheet. Consists of proteins and lipids 1. determines what gets in and out of cell 2. Some proteins in PM receptors, receiving chemical signals from outside the cell, cell2cell 3. Slight protection
Cholesterol in Plasmamembranes Cholesterol is a lipid stabilize the membrane so that it will not break up into little sacs
Glycocalyx (Cell Coat) coat of sugar chains 1. Makes cells sticky for temporary adhesion to other cells 2. Each cell type has distinct arrangement of sugars in glycocalyx, almost like a fingerprint 3. Thick enough to protect plasmalemma and cell
Unit Membrane? is the general name for all bi/trilayered membranes of plasmalemma and internal membranes Internal membranes have no glycocalyx
Cytosol (Cytoplasmic Matrix) shapeless part of cytoplasm in spaces between cellular organelles Contains WATER, IONS, other SMALL MOLECULES, ENZYMES, etc. Makes up 1/2 volume of cytoplasm in cell
Ribosomes Appear as small dark circles in EM pics Shaped like 2 part body of acorn Made up of RNA bound to protein Synthesize cell's proteins thru amino acids to protein chains occur free or attached to RER
RER Consist of cisterns and some tubes or little spheres. Lined by Unit Membrane Well developed in cells that secrete and develop proteins (e.g.pancreas) 1.
Cisterns stacked, membrane walled envelopes in the RER
SER (agranular) No Ribosomes Branched, Membrane-Walled tubules, not envelopes collect Ca+ from cytosol like RER Functions different in all cells due to specialized enzymes Common Function: lipid metabolism (break/make fats)
Mitochondrion Long, rod shaped (unlike bean) 2 unit membranes inner contains cristae matrix between cristae, contains matrix granules own DNA, RNA, ribosomes, self replicating generate energy for work in cell
cristae foldings of the inner membrane of mitochondria increase surface area of membrane
Matrix Fuzzy substance in between cristae is where the kreb's cycle takes place
Ancestral Mitochondria? members of the purple-bacteria phylum
How Many mitochondria and where in cell? proportional to cell's metabolic level concentrated in parts of cell where metabolism is highest
Matrix Granules May contain lipid material to replace mitochondrial membranes Or binds and stores calcium ions like RER and SER
Lysosomes membrane walled sacs w/ enzymes to digest clean up crew of cell break down worn out organelles destroy material digested (e.g.bacteria)
What common enzymes used in lysosomes? Acid Hydrolases
Phagocytosis foreign material enters cell and digested by lysosomes e.g.white blood cell, pseudopods, membrane-walled vacuole is fused w/ lysosome, enzymes enter and destroy.
Nucleolus .
Chromatin .
Extended Chromatin .
Glycosomes .
Lipid droplets .
Cytoplasmic Inclusions .
Nuclear envelope .
Parts of Human Body Axial Region (head, neck, trunk) Trunk (thorax, abdomen, pelvis, perineum) Limbs
What features do we share with other vertebrate animals? Tube-within-tube body 1. dorsal, hollow nerve cord (spinal cord and brain) 2. Notochord (stiffening rod ventral to spinal cord) 3. Pharynx w/ pharyngeal pouches 4. segmentation 5. head with eyes, ears, brain 6. heart in ventral thorax
Notochord Complete rod in embryos of ALL vertebrates becomes part of backbone of humans called nucleus pulposus of intervetrebral discs
Created by: madhatter