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Microevolution

TermDefinition
natural selection process when organisms are better adapted into their environment tend to survive and reproduce more.
convergent evolution organisms not closely related evolve similar traits and have similar environments and niches. (no common ancestor)
allopatric speciation Biological populations are physically isolated by an extrinsic barrier and evolve genetic reproductive isolation, if the barrier breaks down, individuals of the population can no longer interbreed.
genetic drift change in the genetic composition of a population due to random events rather than natural selection, resulting in changes in allele frequencies over time.
Cryptic coloration camouflage
defensive adaptation passively(hiding), actively(fleeing), cryptic coloration(camouflage)
polymorphism a discontinuous genetic variation resulting in the occurrence of several different forms or types of individuals among the members of a single species.
warning coloration color characteristic of a poisonous or unpalatable organism that functions as a warning against predators.
sexual selection "special case" of natural selection, acts on an organism's ability to obtain or successfully reproduce with a mate. Can attract predators and interest members of the opposite sex.
adaptive radiation organisms diversify rapidly into multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.
mimicry imitation of one organism from another.
homology likeness in structure between parts of different organisms due to evolutionary differentiation from corresponding part in a common ancestor.
mutualism both benefit.
commensalism one benefits, one is not affected.
parasitism predators that live on or in their hosts, usually feeding off their body tissues or fluids.
antibiotics resistance in bacteria (how does natural selection contribute?) consequence of evolution through random mutation, also by applying evolutionary stress on a population. If a bacteria carries several resistance genes, multiresistant, (superbug).
analogous structures convergent evolution
homologous structures traits inherited by two different organisms from a common ancestor
vestigial structures lost much of its ancestral function.
reproductive isolation mechanisms that prevents two different species that mate from reproducing or offspring is sterile.
geographic isolation a population of animals, plants, or other organisms that separated from exchanging genetic material with other organisms of the same species. By barriers, distance,natural disaster or separation.
behavioral isolation Signals that attract mates to each other may be one of the most important factors in determining whether closely related species mate with each other or not.
latent variations phenotypically silent DNA sequences which may be reactivated by various genetic mechanisms.
sterility infertile
divergent evolution diverge into two different species
sympatric speciation a new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region.
Created by: tmcmichael18