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SLS Bio12 Cell Trans

SLS Bio12 Cell Transport

QuestionAnswer
active transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane in the direction against some gradient or other obstructing factor
carrier protein are involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
cell membrane the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
channel protein is a protein that allows the transport of specific substances across a cell membrane.
concentration gradient is the process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area of higher number of particles to an area of lower number of particles.
diffusion refers to the process by which molecules intermingle as a result of their kinetic energy of random motion.
endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell
exocytosis is a process in which an intracellular vesicle (membrane bounded sphere) moves to the plasma membrane and subsequent fusion of the vesicular membrane and plasma membrane ensues.
facilitated transport is the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.
fluid-mosaic membrane model In this model, a flexible layer made of lipid molecules is interspersed with large protein molecules that act as channels through which other molecules enter and leave the cell.
glycolipid are lipids with a carbohydrate attached. Their role is to provide energy and also serve as markers for cellular recognition.
glycoprotein are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains.
hydrophilic having a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water.
hydrophobic nonpolar substances to aggregate in aqueous solution and exclude water molecules.
hypertonic If concentrations of dissolved solutes are greater outside the cell, the concentration of water outside is correspondingly lower. As a result, water inside the cell will flow outwards to attain equilibrium, causing the cell to shrink.
isotonic the total molar concentration of dissolved solutes is the same in both of them.
hypotonic If concentrations of dissolved solutes are less outside the cell than inside the concentration of water outside is greater. When a cell is exposed to hypotonic conditions, there is net water movement into the cell. Cells without walls may burst (lyse) if
osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
passive transport processes Diffusion across a cell membrane is a type of passive transport, or transport across the cell membrane that does not require energy
phagocytosis s the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome.
phospholipid They can form lipid bilayers The structure of the phospholipid molecule generally consists of two hydrophobic fatty acid "tails" and a hydrophilic "head" consisting of a phosphate group.
phospholipid bilayer The structure is called a "lipid bilayer" because it composed of two layers of fatty acids organized in two sheets.
pinocytosis is a mode of endocytosis in which small particles are brought into the cell, forming an invagination, and then suspended within small vesicles.
pressure gradient is a physical quantity that describes which direction and at what rate the pressure changes the most rapidly around a particular location.
selectively permeable a partially permeable membrane or a differentially permeable membrane, is a type of biological membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion
tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient (as defined by the water potential of the two solutions) of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Created by: erinishiki