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Ch. 9 quiz

gen biology chapter 9 quiz

Interphase When a cell performs its usual functions depending on its location in the body. Growth and DNA synthesis occur when the nucleus is not actively dividing
G1 Growth as certain organelles double
S The synthesis stage, where the chromosomes of dupicated
G2 Growth as the cell prepares to divide.
Mitotic Stage includes mitosis and cytokineses
Mitosis nuclear division
Prophase chromatin has condensed and the chromosomes are visible so nuclear division is about to occur
Prometaphase preperations for sister chromatid seperation are evident
Metaphase the centromeres of chromosomes are now in alignement on a single plane at the center of the cell
Anaphase the two sister chromatids of each duplicated chromosomes separate at the centromere, giving rise to the two daughter chromosomes
telophase the spindle disappears as new nuclear envelopes form around the daughter chromosomes
cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm
what regulates the cell? The three major checkpoints: G1, G2, and M checkpoints
Steps in apoptosis 1- the cell rounds 2-the nucleus fragments and plasma membrane blisters 3- the cell fragments are engulfed in white blood cells and or neighboring cells and the cell dies
Importance of mitosis It permits growth and replair
importance of apoptosis it keeps the number of cells in the body at an appropriate level
difference between reproductive and theraputic cloning reproductive- the production of a new individual therapuetic- the production of human tissues
difference between cytokinesis in plant and animal cells plant- formation of cell plate animal- divides the cytoplasm
characteristics of cancer cells non differentiated, abnormal nuclei, do not undergo apoptosis, no contact inhibition, disorganized/multilayered, and undergo metastasis
characteristics of non caner cells differentiated, normal nuclei, undergo apoptosis, contact inhibition, and one organized layer
steps of cancer 1-new mutations arise, one cell can start a tumor 2-one cell mutates farthur, tumar at origin 3-cancer cells now can travel throughout the body 4-new metastic tumors are found some distance from primary tumor/ cancer spread.
what occurs during binary fission? two daughter cells are produced asexually that are indentical to the original parent cell
differences in functions of mitosis in prokaryotes and animal/plant cells? prokaryotes- asexual repoduction animal/plant cells- development, growth and repair
apoptosis programmed cell death
angiogenesis when additional mutations occuring in the tumor cells allow them to direct growth of new blood vessels into the tumor
asexual reproduction when the offspring are genetically identical to the parent
aster an array of microtubules that radiate toward the plasma membrane from the centrosomes
benign an abnormal cell growth that is not cancerous and usually does not grow larger
cancer a cellular growth disorder that occurs when cells divide uncontrollably
chromatid each double helix
diploid(2n) the full number of chromosomes found in all cells of the individual
haploid half the diploid number
malignant it is cancerous and possesses the ability to spread
oncogene cancer causing gene
p53 signaling protein that stops the cell cycle at the g1 checkpoint when dna is dammaged
telomere ends of chromosomes
tumor supressor gene code for proteins that inhibit the cell cycle and promote apoptosis
somatic cell body cell that increases by cell division and decreases by apoptosis
kinetochore protein complexes that develop on either side of the centromere during cell division
histone involved in organizing the chromosomes
what is used in glycolysis glucose, 2 NAD+, 2 ATP, 4 ADP, and 4 P
What is formed in glycolysis pyruvate, 2 NADH, 2 ADP, and 4 ATP total
what enzymes or co enzymes are used in this stage NADH
what protiens are used in glycolysis none
is solar energy used in glycolosis No
does chemiosmosis occur in glycolysis no
where does glycolysis take place in the cell cytoplasm
is oxygen needed in glycolysis no
how many net atp are produced in glycolysis 2
aerobic a chemical process that requires oxygen
anabolism chemical reaction in which smaller molecules are combined to form larger molecules
anaerobic a chemical reaction that occurs in the absense of oxygen
catabolism metabolic process that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones
cellular respiration metabolic reactions that use the energy from carbohydrate, fatty acid, or amino acid breakdown to produce ATP molecules
chemiosmosis process by which mitochondria and chloropasts use the energy of an electron transport chain to create a hydrogen ion gradient that drives ATP formation
exergonic reaction puts off heat
endergonic reaction needs heat
what is the chemical formula for cellular respiration C6H12O6+6O2---->6H2O+6CO2+ATP (energy)
what are the reactants of cellular respiration glucose and oxygen
what are the products of cellular respiration carbon dioxide, water, and energy (ATP)
is cellular respiration an exergonic or endergonic reaction endergonic
what role does FAD and NAD+ play in cellular respration FAD- delivers electrons to ETC after becoming FADH2 NAD+- carries electrons to the ETC in the mitochondria
number of ATP in each step of cellular respiration glycolysis- 2 prep phase- none citric acid cycle-2 ETC- 32-36
number of ATP from each co enzyme FADH2-2 NADH-3
what are the four phases of cellular respiration glycolysis, prep RXN, citric acid cycle, and ETC
where does each phase take place glycolysis-cytoplasm, Prep phase- mitochondria, citric acid cycle- matrix of mitochondria, and ETC- cristae of mitochondria
which phases are anerobic glycolysis and fermentation
which phases are aerobic prep cycle, cirtic acid cycle, and ETC
what is the importance of oxygen in the ETC final electron acceptor molecule
importance of anabolism builds molecule
importance of catabolism breaks down molecules
synthesis consumes energy
degredation release of energy
`oxidation loss of electrons
reduction gain of electron
Created by: destinyluye