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From DNA to Proteins

bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria
nucleotides the small units that make up DNA
double helix model in which two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder
base paring rules rules as to how the bases of two DNA strands always pair up - thymine always pairs with adenine - cytosine always pairs with guanine
replication the process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle
DNA polymerase the group of enzymes that bond the new nucleotides together
central dogma states that information in one direction, from DNA to RNA to proteins
RNA ribonucleic acid
transcription the process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA
RNA polymerase enzymes that bond nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule
messenger RNA an intermediate message that is translated to form a protein
ribosomal RNA forms part of ribosomes, a cell's protein factories
transfer RNA brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein
translation the process that converts an mRNA message into a polypeptide
codon a sequence of three nucleotides that codes for an amino acid
stop codon signal the end of the amino acid chain
start codon signals the start of translation and the amino acid methionine
anticodon a set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon
promoter a DNA segment that allows a gene to be transcribed
operon a region of DNA that includes a promoter, an operator, and one or more structural genes that code for all the proteins needed to do a specific task
exons nucleotide segments that code for parts of the protein
intron nucleotide segments that intervene, or occur, between exons
mutation a change in an organism's DNA
point mutation a mutation in which one nucleotide is put in that place of the correct nucleotide
frameshift mutation the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence
mutagen an agent in the environment that can change DNA
Created by: tuohybio1415



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