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BIO 120: Chapter 25

Vocabulary Mars Hill University

Active transport The movement of a substance across biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring an input of energy (often as ATP)
Ammonia NH3; A small and very toxic nitrogenous waste produced by metabolism.
Aorta A large artery that conveys blood directly from the left ventricle of the heart to other arteries. Oxygenated blood from the heart to body tissues.
Behavioral responses Are used by endotherms and ectotherms. Animals response to changes in the environment by altering their behavior. (Move into sun or shade; migration; bathing)
Bowman's capsule A cup-shaped swelling at the receiving end of a nephron in the vertebrate kidney; collects the filtrate from the blood.
Circulatory adaptations can affect the amount of heat lost at the body surface through radiation.
Collecting duct A tube in the vertebrate kidney that concentrate urine while conveying it to the renal pelvis.
Conduction Heat exchange with the environment through direct contact. (Lizard laying on a warm rock)
Convection Heat exchange with the environment through movement of air or liquid. (A cool breeze or going for a swim)
Countercurrent heat exchange A circulatory adaptation in which parallel blood vessels convey warm and cold blood in opposite directions, maximizing heat transfer to the cold blood.
Diffusion The random movement of particles that results in the net movement of a substance down its concentration gradient from a region where it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated.
Ectotherms Referring to organisms that do not produce enough metabolic heat to have much effect on body temperature.
Endotherms Referring to organisms that use heat generated by their own metabolism to maintain a warm, steady body temperature.
Evaporation Heat exchange with the environment through a loss of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as a gas. (Sweating)
Evaporative cooling The process in which the surface of an object becomes cooler during evaporation. Liquid water absorbs heart from a body surface as it turns to water vapor. (Sweating; Panting; Spreading saliva or water)
Filtrate Fluid extracted by the excretory system from the blood or body cavity. The excretory system produces urine from the _______ after removing valuable solutes from it and concentrating it.
Glomerulus n the vertebrate kidney, the part of a nephron consisting of the capillaries that are surrounded by Bowman's capsule; together, a __________ and Bowman's capsule produce the filtrate from the blood.
Hypertonic referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water.
Hypotonic Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water.
Inferior vena cava Brings oxygen poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium.
Insulation Reduces the radiation of heat. (Blubber. Can keep it in or out.)
Kidney Filters waste from the blood like urea, water, salt and proteins.
Metabolic heat production Adaptations that balance heat gain and loss. (Heat is a by-product of respiration; muscle contraction/shivering; clustering)
Nephron The tubular excretory unit and associated blood vessels of the vertebrate kidney; extracts filtrate from the blood and refines it into urine. The _______ is the functional unit of the urinary system.
Osmoconformer An organism whose body fluids have a solute concentration equal to that of its surroundings. _____________ do not gain or loss of water by osmosis. Examples include most marine invertebrates.
Osmoregulation The homeostatic maintenance of solute concentrations and water balance by a cell or organism.
Osmoregulator An organism whose body fluids have a solute concentration different from that of its environment and that must use every in controlling water loss or gain. Example include most land-dwelling and fresh water animals.
Osmosis The diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Radiation Heat exchange with the environment through emissions of electromagnetic waves. (sun light)
Renal cortex The outer portion of the vertebrate kidney, above the renal medulla.
Renal medulla The inner portion of the vertebrate kidney , beneath the renal cortex.
Renal pelvis A cone-shaped collecting area that connects the ureter and the kidney.
Thermoregulation The homeostatic maintenance of an organism's internal body temperature within a range that allows cells to function efficiently.
Tubule Sections of the kidney where the filtration of wastes, electrolytes, and water is controlled; where filtrate travels through.
Urea A soluble form of nitrogenous waste excreted by mammals and most adults amphibians.
Ureter A duct that conveys urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
Urethra A duct that conveys urine from the urinary bladder to the outside. In the male, the ______ also conveys semen out of the body during ejaculation.
Uric acid An insoluble precipitate of nitrogenous waste excreted by land snails, insects, birds, and some reptiles.
Urinary bladder The pouch where urine is stored prior to elimination.
Urinary system The organ system that forms and excretes urine while regulating the amount of water and ions in the body fluids.
Urine Concentrated filtrate produced by the kidneys and excreted by the bladder.
Vasoconstriction Reduces blood flow to surface.
Vasodilation Increases blood flow to surface.
Created by: WhitneyBrooke8