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Cell Division

Cell Division Notes - Review

Cell Division Process by which a cell divides into 2 new cells
Cells need to divide Living things grow by producing more cells repair of damaged tissue If a cells gets too big, it can not get enough nutrients into the cell and waste out of the cell
Parent Cell The original cell; 2 new cells are called DAUGHTER cell.
Before Cell Division occurs The Cell copies (replicates) all of its DNA, so each daughter cell gets complete set of GENETIC INFORMATION from parent cell.
Daughter Cell Each daughter cell is EXACTLY like the parent cell - same kind and number of CHROMOSOMES as the original cell
Unicellular Organisms Reproduce by means of cell divisions- called ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION.
DNA Located in the NUCLEUS and controls all cell activities including cell division
Chromatin Long and thread-like DNA in a non dividing cell
Chromosome DOUBLED, COILED, short DNA in a dividing cell.
Chromosome consist of two parts Chromatid and Centromere
DNA need to change from Chromatin to Chromosomes More EFFICIENT division
CENTROMERE 2 identical sister chromatids attached at an area in the middle
Chromosome Number Every organism (Human, Dog) has its own SPECIFIC NUMBER of chromosomes.
Cell Cycle Series of events cells go through as they GROW and DIVIDE
Cell prepare for division Cell GROWS, prepares for division, then DIVIDES to form 2 daughter cells - each of which then begins the cycle again.
Interphase is divided into 3 phases G1 - cells increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles S -synthesis of DNA (DNA replication) G2 - organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced.
Somatic cells an organism that have the SAME kind and NUMBER of chromosomes.
Interphase Period of cell GROWTH and DEVELOPMENT
Occurs during Interphase DNA COPY (replication) occurs during interphase The cell grows, carries out normal cell activities, replicates all other ORGANELLES Interphase is where the cell spends most of its lifecycle.
Mitosis Division of the nucleus into 2 nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes
Mitosis occurs In ALL the SOMATIC (body) cells.
Why does Mitosis occurs So EACH new DAUGHTER cell has nucleus with a complete set of chromosomes.
4 phases of nuclear Division (mitosis), directed by the cell's DNA (PMAT) 1) Prophase 2) Anaphase 3) Metaphase 4Telophase
Cell Cycle When cell become old or damaged, they die and are replaced with NEW cells.
Cell Division Control DNA Controls ALL cell activities including cell division.
Cells loose control Loose the ability to control their rate of cell division - the DNA of these cells has become damaged or changed (mutated)
Tumors Super- dividing cells form masses
Cytokinesis the DIVISION of the rest of the cell (CYTOPLASM and ORGANELLES) after the nucleus divides.
Animal Cell the CYTOPLASM pinches in
Plant Cell a CELL PLATE forms
After mitosis and cytokinesis The cell returns to INTERPHASE to continue to grow and perform regular cell activities
Benign Tumors are not cancerous - these cell do not spread to other parts of the body.
Malignant Tumors are cancerous - these cells break loose and can invade and destroy healthy tissue in other parts of the body called metastasis
Created by: spotsville2