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SLS Bio 11 Genetics

SLS Bio 11 AV

TermDefinition
Allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
Autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
codominance relationship between two versions of a gene. Individuals receive one version of a gene, called an allele, from each parent.
dihybrid a hybrid that is heterozygous for alleles of two different genes.
dominant allele an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different
genotype the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
heterozygous pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive
homozygous pair of matching alleles, which are the two genes that control a particular trait
mono hybrid hybrid that is heterozygous with respect to a specified gene
multiple allele Three or more alleles for a particular gene
phenotype set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
punnet square diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
recessive allele allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical
sex chromosome a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism
sex-linked trait trait associated with a gene that is carried only by the male or female parent.
test cross a genetic cross between a homozygous recessive individual and a corresponding suspected heterozygote to determine the genotype of the latter
anoptosis the death of cells that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development
cell cycle series of events that takes place in a cell as it grows and divides
centriole a small cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells
centromere the point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.
chromatin material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria are composed
chromosome threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells
crossing-over exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes
cytokinesis cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis
diploid containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
gamete mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
haploid a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
homologous chromosome pair of chromosomes containing a maternal and paternal chromatid joined to together at the centromere
meiosis type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell
mitosis cell division that results in two daughter
nondisjunction failure of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate normally during nuclear division
somatic cell any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
synapsis fusion of chromosome pairs at the start of meiosis
Created by: aveenstra