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Biology 4.1-4.3

Autotrophs An organism that is able to make its own food
Heterotroph An organism that depends on other organisms for food
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) A compound that serves as a temporary energy storage molecules in all cells
ADP (adenosine diphosphate) The molecule that is produced when ATP is split to yield energy
Photosynthesis The process whereby simple sugars are formed from carbon dioxide and water is the presences of light and chlorophyll
Chlorophyll The green pigment of plants cells that is necessary for photosynthesis
Pigment A light absorbing molecules that functions in photosynthesis
Light dependent phase The first phase of photosynthesis; requires light energy to Energize electrons in pigment
Electron transport chain A series of aerobic reactions that release energy as they combine hydrogen and oxygen to form water
Calvin cycle The most common pathway of photosynthesis; also called the carbon fixation cycle or light independent phase
Stroma Material within the chloroplast that surrounds the Grana of thylakoids
ATP synthase An enzyme necessary for the conversion of phosphate and ADP into ATP
Chemosynthesis A process whereby certain organisms cellular energy from the breakdown of inorganic chemicals
cellular respiration The breakdown of food (glucose) to release energy including both aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration
Aerobic Requiring oxygen
Anaerobic Not requiring energy
Glycolysis The breakdown of glucose to Pyruvic acid during cellular respiration
Krebs cycle The stage of aerobic cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid reacts with an enzyme that removes a carbon from the pyruvic acid to produce acetyl CoA, CO2, hydrogen ions, ATP and electrons; also called the citric acid cycle
Acetyl CoA A two carbon substance found in many cellular metabolism
Fermentation The anaerobic breakdown of carbohydrates To pyruvic acid, and then to alcohol and carbon dioxide to lactic acid
Created by: ally.fulton