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autotroph self feeding
heterotroph other feeding
obligate aerobe need oxygen
facultative anaerobe can live in oxygen or oxygen free environment
pili hair like structures gram negative help to stick on surfaces and conjugation bridge
chromosomes single loop of DNA folded onto itself
nucleoid where DNA is found
plasmid small loop of DNA that contains few genes
capsule found outside bacteria stores nutrients and protects from changing environmental conditions.
transduction viruses carry DNA from one bacterial cell to another
transformation bacteria can absorb naked DNA released by dead bacteria from the environment
conjugation two bacteria join at a conjugation bridge one passes on copy of its plasmid or chromosome
decomposers recycle dead organisms releasing their nutrients back to the environment for use by other organisms
chemosynthetic bacteria in deep ocean vents convert hydrogen sulfide gas into energy
cyanobacteria photosynthetic bacteria which act as producers in many aquatic ecosystems
pathogens organisms that cause disease
where do bacteria live? in or on other organisms and aid them (host)
what are 3 things toxins can do to you? poison cells, damage tissues, interfere with cell signalling, and over stimulate cells
parasites absorb nutrients from living organisms
methanogens use oxygen and make methane as a waste product.found in swamp sediments, sewage, and buried land fills.
halophiles salt-loving archaebacteria. Large numbers can turn waters dark pink. pigment used for type of photosynthesis that gives them energy but do not produce oxygen. aerobes
thermophiles archaebacteria from hot springs and high temperature environments. can grow above boiling water temperature.don't use oxygen.
nitrogen fixing bacteria chemosynthetic bacteria that provides all living things the nitrogen needed to make proteins and nucleic acids
saprobes decomposers that release nutrients for plant growth from breaking down dead organic matter
when does endospore formation start? when nutrients become limiting they start a survival strategy which is an adaptive response of the bacteria to their environment
pastuerization (140 F) delicate foods to reduce bacteria numbers not kill it all
sterilization high heat in the process of canning
refrigeration extends shelf life
freezing slows or stops multiplication of bacteria
salting/drying removes water so bacteria cannot survive
coccus round
bacillus rod
spirillium spiral
diplo pair
strepto chain
staphylo cluster
toxins substances that disrupt the metabolism of other organisms
endotoxin lipids and carbs associated with the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria. strongest poisons known to man
exotoxin proteins produced inside gram positive bacteria and cause fever, weakness, and capillary damage
antibiotics chemicals which either kill bacteria or prevent their growth or reproduction
penicillin interferes with cell wall synthesis
tetracycline interferes with protein synthesis
sulfa drugs antibiotics synthesized in laboratories
5 ways antibiotics can attack bacteria damage the cells walls, damage the cell membrane, prevent protein synthesis, prevent DNA from being copied, and interfere with bacterial metabolism
do antibiotics affect viruses? no
Created by: edenbreslauer