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SLS Bio11 Genetic Jh

SLS Bio11 Genetics JH

QuestionAnswer
Allele An allele is a variant form of a gene. Some genes have a variety of different forms, which are located at the same position.
Autosome An autosome is a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Dihybrid Dihybrid cross is a cross between two pure lines (varieties, strains) that differ in two observed traits
Dominant Allele The first allele is dominant and the second allele is recessive. For genes on any chromosome other than a sex chromosome, the alleles and their associated traits are autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive.
Genotype A genotype is an individual's collection of genes.
Heterozygous A diploid organism is heterozygous at a gene locus when its cells contain two different alleles of a gene. The cell or organism is called a heterozygote specifically for the allele
Homozygous Homozygous is a genetic condition where an individual inherits the same alleles for a particular gene from both parents.
Monohybrid A monohybrid cross is a mating between two individuals with different alleles at one genetic locus of interest
Multiple allele Typically, we teach with genes for which only two alleles are known, but many genes have more than two different alleles--thus, "multiple" alleles.
Phenotype Phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits
Punnett Square The Punnett square is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
Recessive allele allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical
Sex Chromosome a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds.
Sex-linked Trait genes on the sex chromosomes, males have just one copy. The Y chromosome has few genes, but the X chromosome has more than 1,000.
Test Cross involves the breeding of a phenotypically dominant individual with a phenotypically recessive individual, in order to determine the zygosity of the former by analyzing proportions of offspring phenotypes
Apoptosis Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms
Cell Cycle A cell cycle is a series of events that takes place in a cell as it grows and divides
Centriole A centriole is a small set of microtubules arranged in a specific way
Centromere The centromere is the part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids.
Chromatin Chromatin is a complex of DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Chromosome Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells. Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of DNA.
Crossing-over Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
Cytokinesis Cytokinesis is the physical process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells.
Diploid Diploid is a cell or organism that has paired chromosomes, one from each parent. In humans, cells other than human sex cells, are diploid and have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Chromosome Number Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes), giving a total of 46 per cell/
Homologous Chromosomes Homologous chromosomes are similar but not identical. Each carries the same genes in the same order, but the alleles for each trait may not be the same.
Meiosis A type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Mitosis Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes, each in its own nucleus.
Nondisjunction Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division.
somatic cell A somatic cell is any cell of the body except sperm and egg cells. Somatic cells are diploid, meaning that they contain two sets of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent.
synapsis Synapsis is the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. It allows matching-up of homologous pairs prior to their segregation, and possible chromosomal crossover between them
Created by: jhalse