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axial mudpuppy


neural spine projects posteriorly from the neural arch
neural arch forms the dorsal section of the vertebral canal with the centrum and terminates in the posteriorly projected neural spine
centrum point of articulation between the main body of the vertebrae
ribs articulate with caudally projecting transverse processes from the centrum of the vertebrae
hemal arch attached to the ventral surface of the centrum provides a tunnel for the caudal artery and vein
hemal spine terminates the hemal arch on the ventral surface of the centrum
cervical vertebra consists of the atlas which articulates with the occipital condyles of the skull which allowed development of a neck
trunk vertebrae approximately 17 in the mudpuppy
sacral vertebrae consists of one sacral vertebra with its rib modified for articulation with the pelvic girdle
caudal vertebrae variable number follow the sacral vertebrae
Created by: jebeard