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biology ocr b1

you and your genes

TermDefinition
where are chromosomes found within a cell? nucleus
what do genes code for? proteins
is a persons weight determined by genes, the environment or a combination of both? they are determined by both environment and genes
name two types of sex cells? sperm (male), egg (female)
true or false - in human body cells , chromosomes are found in pairs? true , chromosomes in the human body do come in pairs
true or false - in human sex cells , chromosomes are found in pairs? false, sex cells only contain one chromosome in each pair
what are alleles? they are different forms of a gene. They can be dominant or recessive.
why do children look both like there parents? because they half the alleles from each parent
what sex chromosomes do human males have? XY
is the allele for cystic fibrosis dominant or recessive? recessive
what are the symptoms for cystic fibrosis? difficulty breathing, chest infections, difficulty in digesting food
what are the symptoms for Huntington's disease? late onset, tremor ,clumsiness,memory loss,inability to concentrate,mood changes
other than testing embryos during IVF , give one other use of genetic testing? can check for genetic disorders
what is the definition of a clone? genetically identical organisms
how are identical twins formed? a single egg will split into 2 and then 2 separate embryos start to develop
what are stem cells? UN-specialized cell, they can become anything
what are the differences between two main types of stem cells? the two types are embryonic and adult, the main difference is that adult can only turn into some types of cells where as the embryonic stem cell can turn into any type of cell
describe one way that stem cells could be used to treat an illness? people with blood disease can get a bone marrow transplant, bone marrow contains stem cells to replace the faulty
what is a functional protein? enzymes such as the nuclei of the cells
what is a structural protein? collagen
what type of characteristics is determined by just genes? dimples
what type of characteristics are determined by the environment? scars
some characteristics are determined by several genes working together such as? eye colour
how many alleles do you usually have for each gene? 2
what is homozygous? two alleles from the same gene
what is heterozygous? two alleles from different genes
alleles can be...? recessive and dominant
what happens if an individual has one or both the dominant alleles he WILL show the associated dominant characteristics
what happens if an individual has one recessive allele he will NOT show the recessive allele characteristics
what happens if an individual has both the recessive alleles? he WILL show the recessive allele characteristics
what chromosome is sex determined on? the Y chromosomes triggers the development of testes, in the absence of the Y chromosome ovaries will develop
what is a genotype? a genotype describes the genetic makeup of an organism
what is a phenotype describes the observable characteristics that the organism has
is the allele for Huntingtons recessive or dominant? dominant
what can a person with a recessive allele do carry it on to his/her offspring
what are the uses for genetic testing for screening adults,children and embryos testing embryos for embryo selection (pre implantation) predictive genetic diseases testing an individual before prescribing drugs
what are the problems with testing adults and fetuses for alleles that causes genetic disorders risk of miss carriage as a result of cell sampling, the result may not be accurate, including false positives and false negatives,whether to have a child or not whether the pregnancy should be terminated whether other family member should be informed
how can there be differences between identical clones environmental changes like scars
how do plants produce clones? when they produce clones with either bulbs or runners
how can you artificially make a clone? you take the nucleus from an adult body cell and transfer it to an empty unfertilized egg cell
Created by: jack rowlands