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Gene Reg. & Cancer

Ch. 12 Gene Regulation & Cancer (Adv. Biology)

The major challenge to therapeutic cloning using adult stem cells is controlling _____ Gene Expression
Cancer cells exhibit abnormal characteristics because ___ of gene expression has been lost. Control
When heterochromatin undergoes unpacking, it becomes ___, a more loosely packed form of chromatin that contains active genes. Euchromatin
Stem cells have been used since the 1960s as a treatment for ___, cancer of the bone marrow/blood tissue. Leukemia
A ___ (small and mobile sequence of DNA that has the ability to move throughout the genome) may cause cancer if a gene needed for the cell cycle is disrupted. Transposon
Mutations in the DNA lead to a breakdown of control which may lead to the development of cancer, especially when it affects the ____ Cell cycle
____ for medical purposes could have the potential to benefit large numbers of people when it comes to understanding more about human diseases and creating identical tissues for transplant. Cloning
In humans, and other mammals, a female with two X chromosomes possesses a ___, an inactivated X chromosome. Barr body
Well-known oncogenic virus which is the primary cause of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus
Have the ability to become any cell within the human body Embryonic stem cells
Have the ability to become any cell pertaining to a particular tissue, within the human body. Adult stem cells
Partially developed or specialized stem cells are said to be... Multipotent
Undeveloped, blank stem cells are said to be... Totipotent
Portion of DNA wrapped around a group of histone molecules within a chromosome Nucleosome
Desired ed is an individual that is exactly like the original individual Reproductive cloning
Some ___ are characterized by their ability to insert viral DNA into human chromosomes, sometimes inserting oncogenes which cause cancer Viruses
Govern functions that are common to many types of cells, so they are virtually always expressed no matter which cell Housekeeping genes
Darkly stained portions of chromatin that represent tightly, compacted and inactive genetic material Heterochromatin
Transcription in eukaryotes follows the same principles as in bacteria, except that many more ___ per gene are involved Regulatory proteins
Type of relationship shared by humans and certain strains of E. coli Mutualistic symbiotic
Typically, ___ occurs because chemicals bind to a receptor protien in a target cell's plasma membrane Cell-signaling
A cluster of genes along with the DNA sequences that control their transcription Operon
Short DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches Promoter
Protein that normally binds to the operator, which lies next to the promoter Repressor
Enzyme that joins nucleotides complementary to a DNA template, during transcription, thus making a copy of the instructions written in the DNA RNA polymerase
Codes for a repressor Regulatory gene
The prevalence of cancer ____ with age Increases
Family of disease having the common characteristic of uncontrolled cell division Cancer
E. coli makes ___ enzymes that help humans to break down lactose. Three
Gene expression is controlled by ____ mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. Five
Males who, through nondisjunction, have two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome - having one barr body - are diagnosed with... Klinefelter Syndrome
In cats, X inactivation is responsible for the ____ coat coloring. Calico
Mechanism by which the same primary mRNA can produce different protein products according to the way it's spliced together Alternative mRNA processing
Cells that are ___, such as nerve cells and cardiac muscle cells, seldom become cancer cells because they rarely divide. Highly specialized
___ and cells lining cavities of lungs, liver, uterus and kidneys as well as skin cells are frequently lost and replaced, so are often involved in cancerous tumors. Fibroblasts
The ___ of the cell cycle regulate how frequently a cell may replicate- A lost of these control mechanisms may lead to cancer. Checkpoints
Medical procedure in which a special camera is used to examine the large intestine and rectum for signs of cancer and other disease. Colonoscopy
Normally, cells experience ____ - reluctance to grow/divide when there is crowding of the cells. Contact inhibition
Code for proteins that promote the cell cycle and inhibit checkpoints. Proto-oncogenes
Code for proteins that inhibit the cell cycle and promote apoptosis Tumor suppressor genes
Signal that activates a cell-signaling pathway by bringing about phosphorylation of a signaling-protein Growth factor
Repeating DNA sequence at the end of the chromosome Telomere
Result of a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 Philadelphia chromosome
Small, mobile sequences of DNA that have the ability to move throughout the genome Transposons
Portion of a chromosome may break off and reattach to another chromosome in a(n) ___ Translocation
___ are available to detect the presence of many genes, including those that have a tendency to cause cancer Genetic tests
The RB gene is also a tumor suppressor gene but takes it's name from its association with the eye tumor called a ____ Retinoblastoma
The ___ gene, a proto-oncogene, predisposes a person to thyroid cancer and can be passed from parent to child. RET gene
BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes with links to... Breast cancer
If the genetic test for the 'ras' oncogene in urine is positive, a doctor can suspect ___ Bladder cancer
Created by: SavannahElkins