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Genetic unit key voc

For Monnat grade 7 by Kelly Mills

TermDefinition
Heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
Trait A characteristic a parent can pass from parent to offspring on genes
Purebred An organism with two identical traits
Hybrid A organism with two identical traits
Offspring the product of the reproductive process of an animal. A child
Gene The set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA
Alleles The different form of a gene
Dominant a trait which overshadows recessive traits
Recessive a trait which only shows in a organism if no dominant is present
Phenotype The physical trait
Genotype The letters of a trait
Homozygous an organism with two identical alleles
Heterozygous an organism with two different alleles
Codominance a condition in which neither of the two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
Meiosis The process of making mating cells, by which the chromosomes are reduced by half.
Haploid cells A cell that is the result of meiosis and has half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Diploid cells A cell that is the result of mitosis and has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Mutations a change in the gene or chromosome
Insertion The addition of extra DNA or RNA into a section of genetic material.
Deletion the loss or absence of a section from a nucleic acid molecule or chromosome.
Substitution something acting in the place of another
Sex linked gene
Carrier a person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have that phenotype
Sex chromosome A pair of genes which determine whether a person is male or female.
Genetic disorder An abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes.
Pedigree a chart or family tree that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
Selective breeding
Inbreeding a selective breeding method in which two indiviguals with identical or similar sets of alleles are bred
Hybridization A selective breeding method in which two genetically different individual organisms are crossed
Clone an organism who has exactly the same genes as the organism is was produced from.
Genetic Engineering the transfer of a gene for the DNA of one organism into another organism
Gene therapy the insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in hope to fix it.
Messenger RNA Copies the coded message from DNA in the coded message
Transfer RNA carries amino acid to the ribosome and adds them to the growing protein.
karyotype A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell.
Probability predicts the results of a cell
Fertilization When sperm and egg meet
Punnett square a chart that shows all possible combinations of alleles in offspring
Genetics the scientific study of heredity
Trait Each different form or a characteristic
Created by: Katey Mille