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Human Body

Apologia Exploring Creation with Gerneral Science 2nd Edition - Module 11

QuestionAnswer
Is there such a thing as a simple life form? NO
Superstructure is what holds your body up and keeps it together; three basic units the skeleton, the muscles, and the skin.
Bone Marrow a substance insde your bones that produces the cells in your blood
Adult Skeleton containes 206 seperate bones
Bones are mades up of cells surrounded by a substance calles bone matrix
Bones matrix composed of collagen and minerals
Collagen a flexable, thread-like substance belonging to a class of chemicals known as proteins
Minerals rigid hard chemicals that contain calcium
Medullary cavity runs along the length of a long bones center, it contains bone marriow and blood vessels, red bone marrow produces the cells in your blood, and yellow bone marrow is composed of fats that are being stored by your body.
Spongy bone surrounds the medullary cavity, the minerals and collagen there are open spaces in a newtwork of solid bone giving it its spongy look , it also contains the red bone marrow which produces red blood cells
Compact bone surrounds the medullary cavity, the collagen and minerals are tightly packed forming a hard tough structure, it is made up of tiny "rods" that are packed together
bone cells living cells that need oxygen and nutrients
periosteum tissue that surrounds the compact and spongy bone cells, it contains blood vessels that supply nutrients to the bones, it also contains nerves tha send pain signals to your brain ifthe bone is damaged
endoskeleton the sum total of all bones in the body and can be split into two major sections: axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton
axial skeletion the portion of the skeletion that supports and protects the head,neck and trunk (vertebral colum, ribs and skull)
appendicular skeleton the portion of the skeleton that attaches to the axial skeleton and has the limbs attached to it (arms and legs)
vertebral column the most important part of the endoskeleton for biologists
vertebrates all creatures that have a vertebral column
arm is made up of two parts; the arm = humerus and the forearm = the radius and the aluna
leg is made up of two parts; the thigh=femur and the leg=the tibia and fibula
pelvic girdle connects the limbs to the axial skeleton; it is composed of three bones two coxae and the sacrum
cartilage another substance found in the endoskeletion it is flexable and is used toattach parts of the endoskeleton together and caps the parts of bones that form joints
exoskeleton external support structure, a body covering,typically made of chitin, that provides support and protection
chitin makes up an exoskeletion and is tough and flexable and hard
arthropods more in creation than all other animals combined.
skeletal muscles help to move the skeleton, maintain posture and keep us warm are mostly voluntary ,the taper as they get near the skeleton and the end in a tendon which attaches to the skeleton
voluntary muscles you control them by thinking about it
sternocleidomastoid and posterior triangle muscles used when tilting your head
smooth muscles are involuntay muscles, you do not do them by choice, they cause involuntary movements: such as digestion
cardiac muscle is a cross between the skeletal and smooth, it is controlled by the brain and the sinoatrial node
sinoatrial node a small patch of cells that resides in the heart, its sets the pace at which the cardiac muscles contract and relax by generating an electrical signal that turns on and off about 100 times each minute, it is often refered to as the pacemaker
flagella and cilia tails and tiny hairs that cause movement in other kingdoms
phototropism and gravitropism examples of how plants "move" in the kingdom plantae
joints help the skeleton to move
hinge joints are found at the elbow and knee
ball and socket joints the shoulder and hip joints
saddle joints your ankle joint
washer joint exsist only in your backbone, made up of a cartilage disk that it connects one vertebra to the other
articular cartilage covers the bone in a joint
ligaments helps to keep the ball in the socket
articular capsule lubricates the joints and is made up of the fibrus capsule and the synovial membrane;
synavial memberane makes synovial fluid, and the joints it lubricatres are called the synovial joints
skin the thin layer that covers your entire body
epidermis outer layer of skin
dermis inner layer of skin
hypodermis lies below the dermis, is composed mostly of fat and not really considered part of the skin, it binds the skin to the underlying tissue
keratin a waterproof protein made by the cell when a living skin cell moves upward through the epidermis and transforms the cytoplasm, this process is called keratinization
hair produced by the skin in a structure know as the hair follicle, in the matrix or lowest part of the hair folicle
arrector pili muscle the hair folicle is connected to this muscle in the dermis
sebaceous glands are connected to the hair folicle in the dermis, they produce oil that coats the hairs and softens the hair and the skin
symbiosis is a close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits
melanin a pigment that gives color to the skin; the darker or lighter the melanin, the darker or lighter the skin; albinism is a condition inwhich a person has no melanin at all
mammal an organism that produces hair
bird an organism that produces feathers
fish or reptile an organism that produces scales
arthropod organism's skin is an exoskeleton
amphibians breathe with their skin, salamanders, toads, frogs
Created by: skurutz