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Meiosis and Mendel

somatic cell cells that make up most of the body tissues and organs
gametes sex cells
homologous chromosome two chromosomes that have the same length and general appearance
autosome a chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of an organism
sex chromosome chromosomes that directly control the development of sexual characteristics
sexual reproduction process that involves the fusion of two gametes that results in offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents
fertilization the actual fusion of an egg and a sperm cell
diploid a cell that has two copies of each chromosome (one copy from the mother and one copy from the father)
haploid a cell that has only one copy of each chromosomes
meiosis a form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells
gametogenesis the productions of gametes
sperm the male gamete
egg the female gamete
polar body a cell with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down
trait distinguishing characteristics that are inherited
genetics the study of biological inheritance patterns and variation in organisms
purebred genetically uniform
cross the mating of two organisms
law of segregation (Mendel's first law) states that (1) organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent, and (2) organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes
gene a piece of DNA that provides a set of instructions to a cell to make a certain protein
allele the alternative form s of a gene that may occur at a specific locus
homozygous two of the same alleles at a specific locus
heterozygous two different alleles at a specific locus
genome all of an organism's genetic material
genotype the genetic makeup of a specific set of genes
phenotype the physical characteristics of an individual organism
dominant the allele that is expressed when two different alleles or two of this type of allele are present
recessive the allele that is only expressed when two copies of this type of allele are present
Punnett square a grid system for prediction all possible genotypes resulting from a cross
monohybrid cross a cross that examines the inheritance of only one specific trait
testcross a cross between an organism with unknown genotype and a n organism with the recessive phenotype
dihybrid cross a cross that examines the inheritance of two different traits
law of independent assortment a law that states that allele pairs separate independently of each other during gamete formation
probability the likelihood that a particular event will happen
crossing over the exchange of chromosomes segments between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis I
genetic linkage when genes that are located together are inherited together
Created by: tuohybio1415



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