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Biology Test 2- Loui

Biology Test Chapter 2

What is an Organic? Describes a compound that consists primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
What is Condensation? Process by which enzymes build large molecules from smaller subunits; water also forms.
What is an Enzyme? Compound that speeds up a reaction without being changed by it.
What is usually an Enzyme? A protein
What is a Functional Group? A group of atoms bonded to a carbon of an organic compound; impacts a specific chemical property to the molecule.
What is a Hydrocarbon? Compound that consists only of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
What is Hydrolysis? Process by which an enzyme breaks a molecule into small subunits by attaching a hydroxyl group to on part and a hydrogen atom to another.
What is Metabolism? All the enzymes-mediated chemical reactions by which cells acquire and use energy as they build and break down organic molecules.
What is a monomer? Molecules that are subunits of polymers
What is a Polymer? Molecules that consists of multiple monomers
What is reaction? Process of molecular change
What is Carbohydrates? Molecules that consists primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio
What is cellulose? Polysaccharides; major structural material in plants
What is disaccharides? polymer of two sugar subunits
What is glycogen? Polysaccharide; energy reservoir in animal cells
What is monosarccharides? simple sugar; monomer of polysaccharides
What is Polysaccharides? polymer of many monosaccharides
What is starch? Polysaccharides;energy reservoir in plant cells
What is fat? Lipid that consists of glycerol molecule with one, two, or three fatty acid tails.
What is Fatty acid? Organic compound that consists of a chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end. Carbon chain of saturated types has single bonds only; that of unsaturated types has one more double bond.
What is a lipid? fatty, oily, or waxy organic compound
What is a lipid bilayer? Double layer of lipids arranged tail-to-tail; structural foundation of all cell membranes?
What is phosopholipid? A lipid with a phosphate group in its hydrophilic head, and two non polar fatty acid tails; main constituent of eukaryotic cell membranes
What is saturated fatty acid? Fatty acid that contains no carbon-carbon double bond.
What is a steroid Type of lipid with four carbon rings and no fatty acid tails.
What is a triglyceride? Fat with three fatty acid tails.
What is unsaturated fatty acid? Fatty acid that has one or more carbon-carbon double bonds in its tail.
What is wax? Water-repellent mixture of lipids with long fatty acid tails bonded to long chain alcohols or carbon rings.
What is Amino Acid? Small organic compound that is subunits of Proteins. Consists of carboxyl group, an amine group, and a characteristic side group (R), all typically bonded to the same carbon atom.
What is peptide bond? A bond between the amine group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another . Joins amino acids in proteins.
What is Protein? Organic compound that consists of one or more chains of amino acids.
What is polypeptide? Chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
What is Denature? to unravel the shape of a biological molecule
What is prion? Infectious protein
What is ATP? Adenosine triphosphate. Nucleotide that consists of an adenine base, a ribose sugar and three phosphate groups.
What is DNA? Deoxyribonucleic acid. Nucleic acid that carries hereditary information about traits; consists of two nucleotide chains twisted in a double helix.
What is nucleic acid? Single- or double- stranded chain of nucleotides joined by sugar-phosphate bonds; for example: DNA and RNA
What is nucleotide? Monomer of nucleic acids; has a five carbon sugar, a nitrogen- containing base, and phosphate groups.
RNA Ribonucleic acid. Some types have roles in protein synthesis.
Organic molecules consists mainly of _____ atoms? Carbon and Hydrogen
Each carob atom can share pairs of electrons with as many as ___ other atoms? 4
_____ groups impart polarity to alcohols. Hydroxyl
_____ is a simle sugar (monosaccharides) Glucose and Ribosome
What 3 carbohydrates can be built using only glucose monomers? Starch, cellulose, and glycogen
Unlike saturated fats, the fatty acid tails of unsaturated fats incorporate one or more ____? double bonds
T/F? Unlike saturated fats, all unsaturated fats are beneficial to health because their fatty acid tails kink and do not pack together. False
Steroids are among the lipids with no ____? Fatty acid tails
Class of molecules that encompasses? Lipids
____ are to proteins as _____ are to nucleic acid? Amino Acids Nucleotides
A denatured protein has lost its ____? Hydrogen Bonds Shape Functions
What is not found in DNA? Amino Acids
What is cell theory? Every organism is composed of one or more cells. Cell is the smallest unit having properties of life. Continuity of life arises from growth and division of single cell.
What is cytoplasm? Semifluid substance enclosed by a cells plasma membrane
What is a nucleus? Organelle with two membranes that holds a eukaryotic cells DNA
What is an organelle? Structure that carries put a specialized metabolic function inside a cell
What is plasma membrane? A cells outermost membrane
What is surface-to-volume ratio? A relationshop in which the volume of an object increases with the cube of the diameter, and the surface area increases with the square.
What is biofilm? community of microorganisms living with a shared mass of slime
What is cell wall? Semirigid but permeable structure that surround the plasma membrane of some cells
What is flagellum? Long, slender cellular structure use for motility
What is nucleoid? Region of cytoplasm where the DNA is concentrated inside a bacterium or archaea
What is Plasmid? Small circle of DNA in some bacteria and archaea
What is ribosome? Organelle of protein synthesis
What is Chromatin? Collective term for DNA molecules together with their associated proteins.
What is Chromosome? A structure that consists of DNA and associated proteins; carries part or all of a cell's genetic information.
What is nuclear envelope? a double membrane that constitutes the outer boundary of the nucleus. Pores in the membrane control which substances can cross.
What is nucleolus? In a cell nucleus, a dense, irregularly shaped region where ribosomal subunits are assembled
What is nucleoplasm? Viscous fluid enclosed by the nuclear envelope
What is central vacuole? Fluid-filled vesicles in many plant cells
What is endomembrane system? series of interacting organelles between nucleus and plasma membrane, produces lipids, proteins.
What is endoplasmic reticulum (ER)? Organelle that is a continuous system of sacs and tubes; extension of the nuclear envelope. Smooth ER makes lipids and breaks down carbohydrates and fatty acids; rough ER modifies polypeptides made by ribosomes on its surface.
What is golgi body? Organelle that modifies polypeptides and lipids; also sorts and packages the finished products into vesicles.
What is lysosomes? Enzyme filled vesicle that functions in intracellular digestions
What is a peroxisome? Enzyme filled vesicle that breaks down amino acids, fatty acids, and toxic substances
What is vacuole? a fluid filled organelle that isolates or disposes of waste, debris, and toxic materials
What is a vesicle? small, membrane-enclosed, saclike organelle, different kinds store, transport, or degrade their contents.
What is chloroplasts? Organelle of photosynthesis in the cells of plants and many proteins.
What is mitochondrion? Organelle that produces ATP by aerobic respiration in eukaryotes.
What is Plastid? Category of double-membraned organelle in plants and algal cells. Different types specialize in storage or photosynthesis; e.g., chloroplast, amyloplast.
What is basal body? Organelle that develops from a centriole
What is cell cortex? Reinforcing mesh of cytoskeletal elements under a plasma membrane
What is a centriole? barrel shaped organelle from which microtubules grow.
What is cilium? short, movable structure that projects from the plasma membrane and some eukaryotic cell
What is cytoskeleton? Dynamic framework of protein filaments that support, organize, and move eukaryotic cells and their internal structures.
What is intermediate filament? stable cytoskeletal element that structurally supports cells and tissues.
What is microfilament? reinforcing cytoskeletal element; a fiber of action subunit.
What is microtubule? Cytoskeletal element involved in cellular movement; hollow filament of tubulin subunits
What is motor protein? Types of energy-using proteins that interacts with cytoskeletal elements to move the cells parts or the whole cell
What is pseudopod? temporary protrusion that helps some eukaryotic cells move and engulf prey.
What is adhering junction? cell junction composed of adhesion proteins; anchors cells to each other and extracellular matrix.
What is cell junction? structure that connects a cell to another cell or to extracellular matrix
What is cuticle? secreted covering at a body surface
What is extracellular matrix (ECM)? Complex mixtures of cell secretions; supports cells and tissues; has roles in cell signaling.
What is a gap junction? Cell junction that forms a channel across the plasma membranes and adjoining animal cells
What is lignin? Material that stiffens cell walls of vascular plants.
What is plasmodesmata? cell junctions that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells.
What is primary wall? the first cell wall of young plant cells
What is secondary wall? lignin-reinforced wall that forms inside the primary wall of a plant cell
What is tight junction? arrays of fibrous proteins; joined epithelial cells and collectively prevent fluids from leaking between them
T/F Ribosomes are only found in bacteria and archaea False
Despite the diversity of cell type and function, all cells have these things in common.... Cytoplasm, DNA and plasma membrane
Every cell is descended from another cell. This idea is part of ______? Cell theory
Unlike eukaryotic cell, bacteria cells ____? Have no nucleus
T/F All protists start out life with no nucleus. False
Cell membranes consists mainly of _____? Lipid bilayer and proteins
Enzymes contained in ______ break down worn out organelles, bacteria and other particles? Lysosomes
Put in order according to the pathway of a secreted protein: Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Bodies Post-Golgo Vesicles Plasma Membrane
The main function of the endomembrane system is building and modifying ______ and _____? Lipids and Proteins
T/F The plasma membrane is the outermost component of all cells. False
Which of the following organelles contains no DNA? Golgi body
Cytoskeletal elements called ____ form a reinforcing mesh under the nuclear envelope. Microfilaments
No animal cell has a ____? cell wall
______ connect the cytoplasm of plant cells? Plasmodesmata
Intermediate filaments are a feature of ____ cells? Eukaryotic
What is the difference between Organic and Inorganic Compounds? organic compounds contain carbon atoms and inorganic compounds does not contain carbon
CHNOPS (Molecules of life) Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Sulfer Phosphorus
What are the carbohydrates? Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
Monosaccharides Simple sugars Simplest Carbohydrates Sweet tasting, water soluble 5 to 6 carbon backbones
Disaccharides Short Chain Carbohydrates Type of oligosaccharides Two mono bonded together Formed by a Condensation reaction
Polysaccharides Complex Carbohydrates Many monomers Composed entirely of glucose (Cellulose, Starch, and Glycogen)
What falls under Lipids? Fatty acids, wax, cholesterol,trigycerides, saturated and unsaturated fats
Nucleic Acids DNA- Genetic Code RNA- make energy which is the ATP
Proteins made up of amino acids peptide bonds- several amino acids put together
Carbohydrates Plants make starch Humans make glycogen we all make sugars
What is an example of Carb? Pastas
What is an example of Proteins? Fish, Chicken... Meats
What is an example of lipids? candle wax
what is an example of nucleic acids? RNA, DNA
Prokaryote Bacteria do not carry a nucleus Plasma membrane, region where dna is stores and cytoplasm
Eukaryote Humans... Carry a nucleus plasma membrane region where dna is stored cytoplasm
Example of Monosaccharides Glucose, fructose, and galactose
Example of disaccharides lactose, sucrose, and maltose
Examples of Polysaccharides starch, cellulose, glycogen, and chitin
Lysosomes carry enzymes
Mitochondria power house of the cell
Chloroplasts makes the green coloring called chlorophyll
Vesicles carry information
Monomers lipids fatty acids
monomers carbs monosaccharides
monomers proteins amino acids
proteins that lose function shape and hydrogen bonds are... denaturized
Chitin crunchyyy (when you step on a roach)
Created by: marygardner