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Biology: Chapter 4.3

Chapter 4.3 Vocabulary

Phospholipid Bilayer a double layer that forms when phospholipids are lined up so that their heads point outward toward the water and their tails point inward, away from the water
Chromosome the condensed form of DNA when a cell is about to divide
Nuclear Envelope a double membrane in which the nucleus is surrounded by
Nucleolus a denser area that most nuclei contain
Ribosome organelles made of protein and RNA that direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
Mitochondrion the organelles that transfer energy from organic molecules to adenosine triphosphate
Endoplasmic Reticulum a series of membranous tubes and sacs, called cisternae that functions primarily as an intracellular highway, a path along with molecules move from one part the cell to another
Golgi Apparatus another system of flattened, membranous sacs where vesicles travel from one part of the apparatus to the next and transport substances as they go
Lysosome vesicles that bud from the Golgi apparatus and that contain digestive enzymes; these enzymes can break down large molecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and phospholipids
Cytoskeleton a network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscross the cytosol
Microtubule hollow tubes made of a protein called tubulin; each tubulin molecule consists of two slightly different subunits
Microfilament long threads of the bread-like protein actin that are linked end to end and wrapped around each other like two strands of rope; finer than microtubules
Cilium hair-like structures that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in movement
Flagellum hair-like structures that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in the movement
Centriole consist of two short cylinders of microtubules at right angels to each other and are situated in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope; these occur in animal cells, where they organize the microtubules of the cytoskeleton during cell division
Created by: truongm19