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chapter 4 section 3

cell organelles and features

phospholipid bilayer phospholipids have a polar hydrophilic (water loving) phosphate head and a hydrophobic (water fearing) fatty acid tail. as they line up, it forms a double layer
chromosome when the cell divides, the DNA condenses
nuclear envelope double membrane surrounding the nucleus - made up of two phospholipid bilayers
nucleus usually one dense layer in the center of the cell
ribosome organelles made of proteins and RNA that direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
motichondrion tin organelles that transfer energy from organic molecules to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
enoplasmic reticulum abbreviated ER is a system of membranous tubes and sacs, called cisternae
golgi apparatus a system of flattened, membranous sacs. the sacs nearest the nucleus receive vesicles from the ER containing newly made proteins or lipids
lysosome vesicles that bud from the Golgi apparatus and that contain digestive enzymes. these enzymes can break down large molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and phospholipids.
cytoskeleton a network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscross the cytosol. the tubes and filaments give shape to the cell from the inside the same way that tent poles support the shape of a tent
microtubule hollow tubes made of a protein called tubilin. each tubilin molecule consists of two slightly different subunits. these also radiate outward from a central point called the centrosome
microfilament long threads of the beadlike protein actin and are linked end to end and wrapped around each other like two strands of a rope.
cilium short and are present in large numbers on certain cells
flagellum are longer and far less numerous on the cells where they occur
centriole consists of two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles to each other and are situated in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope.
Created by: campbellm19