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Cells and Energy

TermDefinition
ATP a molecule that transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell processes
ADP a lower-energy molecule that can be converted into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group
chemosynthesis a process by which some organisms use chemical energy instead of light energy to make energy-storing carbon-based molecules
photosynthesis a process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy
chlorophyll a molecule in chloroplasts that absorbs some of the energy in visible light
thylakoid coin-shaped, membrane-enclosed compartments
light-dependent reactions reactions that capture energy from sunlight
light-independent reactions reactions that use energy from the light-dependent reactions to make sugars
photosystem groups of molecules in with energy in captured and transferred in the thylakoid membranes
electron transport chain a series of proteins in the membrane of the thylakoid
ATP synthase the process that makes ATP by adding phosphate groups to ADP
Calvin cycle chemical reactions that use carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere and the energy carried by ATP and NADPH to make simple sugars
cellular respiration a process that releases chemical energy from sugars and other carbon-based molecules to make ATP when oxygen is present
aerobic a type of process that needs oxygen to take place
glycolysis the process that splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules and makes two molecules of ATP
anaerobic a type of process that does not need oxygen to take place
Krebs cycle the cycle that produces molecules that carry energy to the second part of cellular respiration
fermentation an anaerobic process that allows glycolysis to continue
lactic acid the substance that causes your muscles to "burn" during hard exercise
Created by: tuohybio1415