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Chemistry Unit

Chemistry Unit - Basic

Atom Atoms are the basic building blocks of the universe. Made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space. All matter is made up of atoms.
Subatomic Particles Atoms are made of 3 smaller parts: protons, neutrons, electrons
Proton Protons are the subatomic particles that have a positive charge.They are found in the nucleus.
Neutron Neutrons are the subatomic particles that have no charge(neutral charge). They are found in the nucleus
Electron Electrons are the subatomic particles that have a negative charge. They are extremely small and circle around the nucleus in different energy levels. Determines whether the atom will react.
Nucleus The center of the atom containing the Protons and Neutrons is called the Nucleus
Electron Shell/Energy Level The electrons circle around the nucleus in different pathways called “shells" or "energy levels".
Atomic Number Tells you how many protons the atom has. Atoms must have equal number of protons and electrons.
Atomic Mass Tells you the average mass of the nucleus of the atom which contains both Protons and Neutrons, NOT electrons.
2n^2 Rule Tells you the maximum number of electrons in each energy level is the 2n2 Rule where n = the number of the energy level.
Bonds Two or more atoms share or transfer electrons to become stable. When electrons do this the atoms are said to be bonded together
Octet Rule Atoms are stable if they have 8 electrons in their outermost energy level
Compound The atoms in the molecule are all different (example, C02) .
Molecule Atoms of the same element that are bonded together form molecules .
Chemical Reaction Making and/or breaking bonds. When these bonds break, energy is released. Living organisms get their energy from bonds breaking in chemical reactions.
Enzymes Protein molecules that speed up chemical reactions. Also known as Catalysts.
Lock and Key Model The enzyme and substrate must fit together to work. Key (substrate) and Lock (enzyme)
Chemical Equation Shows the atoms or molecules that you begin with and will react
Reactant The atoms that undergo a chemical reaction. These are to the left of the arrow in a chemical equation
Product Shows what is made in the chemical reaction. These are to the right of the arrow in a chemical equation.
Yields The arrow in a chemical equation that separates the reactants from the products.
Ions Atoms with a positive or negative charge
Acids compounds that form H+ (hydrogen ions) in a solution. Below 7 on pH scale
Bases compounds that work OH- (hydroxide ions) in solution. Above 7 on pH scale
pH Scale A scale that goes from 0-14 that measures the strength of acids and bases
Indicator A substance that shows the presence or concentration of a certain substance
Chemistry The study of matter and how it changes.
Created by: bigelowbulldog