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Oral Pathology

Chapter 4 Infectious Diseases

Humoral immunity (antibodies) an effective defense against some microorganisms
Cell-mediated immunity (T-cell lymphocytes) an effective defense against others, such as intracellular bacteria, viruses, and fungi
Impetigo bacterial skin infection, mostly in young children, infectious, Tx is topical or systemic antibiotics
Tonsillitis and Pharyngitis Inflammatory conditions on the tonsils and pharyngeal mucosa, symptoms are sore throat, fever, tonsillar hyperplasia, erythema. Can be spread by contact.
Scarlet Fever Occurs in children. Is a generalized red skin rash. Oral manifestations include petechiae on the soft palate, strawberry tongue, and fungiform papillae become red and prominent which could be white or erythema on the dorsal surface
Rheumatic Fever Childhood disease, inflammatory reaction involving the heart, joints, and central nervous system.
Tuberculosis Rare oral ulcerations
What are signs and symptoms of Tuberculosis Fever, chills, fatique, malaise, weight loss, persistent cough
What is significant of Miliary Tuberculosis widespread
What do we do with pt.'s with Tuberculosis biopsy, skin test, chest radiographs
Treatment and Prognosis for Tuberculosis combination medications, including isoniazid (INH) and rifampin. Tx may continue for months or years.
Actinomycosis infection cause by filamentous bacterium, draining abcesses and tx is long-term, high doses of antibiotics
Syphilis organisims die when exposed to air and changes in temperature, transmitted by direct contact, sexual contact, transfusion of infected blood to a fetus from infected mother
Secondary stage of Syphilis diffuse eruptions occur on skin and mucouse membranes, mucous patches, may have spontaneous remission by may recur for months or years
Primary stage of Syphilis Chancre
Tertiary stage of Syphilis involves the cardiovascular system and nervous system, gumma forms
Gumma firm mass, noninfectious, destructive lesion resulting in perforation of palatal bone.
Congenital Syphilis can cross the placenta and enter fetal circulation, cause serious irreversible damage to the child, including facial and dental abnormalities
What is the diagnosis and treatment of Syphilis Blood tests include a venereal disease research laboratory test and fluoresent treponemal antibiody absorption, Penicillin is the tx
Necrotizing Ulcerative Ginigvitis (NUG) erythematous gingivitis with necrosis of interdental papilla
What is the treatment of NUG gentle debridement, antibiotics if fever is present
What is the diagnosis of NUG Necrosis, catering of interdental papilla, sloughing of necrotic tissue, pseudomembrane forms over the tissue
Pericoronitis inflammation around the crown of a patially erupted, impacted tooth, commonly on the third molar. Trauma from an opposing molar and impacted tooth under operculum
Treatment of Pericoronitis mechanical debridment, irrigation of the pocket, systemic antibiotics, removal of the offending tooth
Acute Osteomylitis acute inflmmation of the bone marrow and bone. result of a periapical abcess, may result from bacteremia
Acute Osteomyelitis Diagnosis nonviable bone, necrotic debris, acute inflammation, bacterial colonies in marrow spaces
Acute Osteomyelitis Diagnosis drainage of purulent exudate, antibiotics
Chronic Osteomyelitis long standing inflammation of bone, bone painful and swollen, radiographs reveal a diffuse and irregular radiolucency that can become opaque
Treatment of Chronic Osteomylitis debridment, administration of systemic antibiotics, some patients require hyperbaric treatment
Candidiasis result from antibiotics, cancer chemotherapy, coritocsteriod therapy, dentures, diabetes, HIV infection, infancy, etc. Can be identified by scraping of the lesion
Pseudomembranous Candidiasis white curdlike material on mucosal surface, mucosa is erythematous, burning sensation or metallic taste
Erythematous Candidiasis erythematous often painful mucosa, can be localized or generalized
Denture Stomatitis (Chronic Atropic Candidiasis) most common type, mucosa is erythematous, coomon on palate and maxillary ridge, size depends on partial or denture
Chronic Hyperplastic Candidiasis (Candidal Leukoplakia) white lesion that does not wipe off, responds to antifungal medication, if it doesn't respond to medication it should be biopsied
Angular Cheilitis erythema or fissuring at the labial commisures
Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis occurs in pt.'s that are severly immunocompromised, the pt. has chronic oral and genital mucosal candidasis as well as skin lesion
Median Rhomboid Glossitis erythematous often rhomboid shaped, flat, to raised area on the midline of the posterior portion of dorsal surface
Diagnosis and Treatment of Median Rhomboid Glossitis mucosal smear is obtained and sent to the labratory, can be persistent and recurrent, may be a sign of a severe medical problem
Deep Fungal Infections oral lesions are a result of this. May involve the lungs and there is a regional distribution of the lesions
Mucormycosis (Phycomycosis) rare fungal infection, occur with diabectic and debilitated patients, can be a proliferating or destructive mass in the maxilla
Verruca Vulgaris (Common Wart) papillary oral lesion. transferred from skin to oral mucosa by finger sucking or fingernail biting, white, papillary exophytic lesion that resembles a papilloma
Condyloma Acuminatum benign lesion caused my HPV, transmitted by sexual contact, papillary bulbous pink masses that can occur anywhere in the oral mucosa
Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck Disease) multiple whiteish to pale pink nodules distrubuted throughout the oral mucosa, more common in children, resolves itself in a few weeks.
Type 1 Herpes Simplex is caused by what? oral infections
Type 2 Herpes Simplex is caused by what? genital infections
Primary Herpetic Gingivostomatitis painful, erythematous, and swollen gingiva and multiple tiny vesicles on perioral skin, vermillion boarder of lips and oral mucosa. Progress to form ulcers. occurs in chrildren
Recurrent Herpes Simplex Infection persistent and latent, usually in nerve tissue og the trigeminal ganglion
Recurrent Herpes Simplex Infection (Cold Sore or Fever Blister) common location are on the lips, infection is caused by stress, sunglight, menstruation, fatique, and fever
Herpetic Whitlow a painful infection of the fingers caused by a primary or secondary infection
Varicella-Zoster Virus chickenpox and shingles, respiratory aerosols and contact with secretions from skin lesions, VERY CONTAGIOUS
Herpes Zoster Shingles secondary chickenpox in an adult, painful eruptions of vesicles along the sensory nerve
Epstein-Barr Virus Infectious Mononucleosis sore throat, fever, fatique, petechiae on palate, etc... transmitted by kissing
Epstein-Barr Virus Hairy Leukoplakia irregular, corrugated, white lesion occuring on the lateral boarder on the tongue
Coxsackie Virus Infection fecal oral contamination, saliva, and respiratory droplets, also known as herpangina, hand foot and mouth disease etc.
Coxsackie Virus Infection Herpangina fever, sore throat, vesicles on the soft palate, erythematous pharyngitis, can resolve in 1 week without treatment
Coxsackie Virus Infection Hand Foot and Mouth Disease occurs in chrildren less than 5 years old. multiple macules or papules occur on the skin, typically the feet, toes, hands and fingers, oral lesions are painful vesicles that occur in the mouth
Coxsackie Virus Infection Acute Lymphonodular Pharyngitis fever, sore thorat, mild headache, hyperplastic lymphoid tissue of the soft palate or tonsils appear yellow or dark pink nodules, Lasts several days 2 weeks no tx required.
Measles highly contagious disease causing systemic symptoms and a skin rash, koplik spots, small macules, occur in the oral cavity
Mumps viral infection of the salivary glands, bilateral swelling of the parotid glands
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Aquired Immunodefieiency Syndrome (AIDS) transmitted by sexual contact, blood and blood products, infected mothers to infants
HIV may not have an symptoms or signs of disease for some time. progressive immunodeficiency develops, immune system becomes deficient causing life threatening opportunistic infections and cancers
Diagnosing AIDS HIV infection with svere lymphocyte depletion
Clinical Manifestations of AIDS asymptomatic, lymphadenopathy, acute illness resembling mononucleosis, infects cells of immune system, oral candidiasis, fatigue, weight loss
Window of infectivity Antibodies to HIV begin to become detectable about 6 weeks after infection... antibiodies many not be detectable for 6 months or up to one year in some people
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
AIDS Aquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Oral Candidiasis (Thrush) antifuncal medications, recurrence is common, HIV pt.'s singnals the begining of severe immunodeficiency
T/F: An ulceration resulting from herpes simplex that has been present for more than 1 month meeth the criteria for the diagnosis of AIDS true
Hariy Leukoplakia predictor of AIDS in HIV pt.'s, chronic tongue chewing can produce a similar lesion. No tx
Lymphoma biobsy, histologic examination, tx with chemotherapeutic drugs
Linera Gingival Erythema (LGE) spontaneous bleeding, punctate or petechiae-like lesions on attached gingva and alveolar mucosa
What organism causes Syphilis? spirochete, Treponema pallidum
What are the various forms of Candida? pseudomembranous candidiasis, erythematous candidiasis, denture stomatitis, chronic hyperplastic candidiasis, angular cheilitis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis
What is a wart? Verruca Vulgaris
What causes mononucleosis kissing
Created by: daisenmurray
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