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Chapter 2

Composition of Matter, Energy, and Water and Solutions

Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Mass The quantity of matter that an object has.
Elements Substances that cannot be broken down chemically into similar kinds of matter.
Atom The simplest part of an element that retains all of the properties of that element.
Nucleus The central part of an atom.
Proton A positively charged particle.
Atomic Number The number of protons in an element.
Mass Number The number that is equal to the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
Electron Small negatively charged particles in an atom.
Orbital The three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of electrons.
Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons.
Compounds Things that are made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions.
Chemical Bonds The attractive forces that holds atoms together.
Covalent Bonds When two or more atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
Molecule The simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state.
Ion An atom or molecule with an electric charge.
Ionic Bond When a positive and negative bond attract each other.
Energy The ability to do work.
Chemical Reaction When one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances.
Reactants The things on the left side of a chemical equation.
Products The things on the right side of a chemical equation.
Metabolism All the chemical reactions that occur in an organism.
Activation Energy The amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction.
Catalysts Chemical substances that reduces the amount of activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction.
Enzymes A protein or RNA molecule that that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed.
Redox Reactions Reactions where electrons are transferred between atoms. (oxidation reduction reactions)
Oxidation Reactions Reactions where reactants lose one or more electrons making it positive.
Reduction Reactions Reactions where reactants gain one or more electrons making it negative.
Polar A description of a molecule with opposite charges on opposite ends.
Hydrogen Bond The force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge.
Cohesion An attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together.
Adhesion An attractive force that holds molecules of different substances together.
Capillarity The attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid.
Solution A mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance.
Solute A substance dissolved in the solvent.
Solvent The substance in which the solute is dissolved.
Concentration The amount of solute dissolved in the fixed amount of the solution.
Saturated Solution A solution in which no more solute can dissolve.
Aqueous Solution Solutions in which water is the solvent.
Hydroxide Ion The OH- ion.
Hydronium Ion The O+ ion.
Acid When the number of hydronium ions in a solution is greater than the number of hydroxide ions.
Base A solution that contains more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions.
pH Scale A scale that ranges from 0-14 ranging from 0=Acidic to 14=Alkaline.
Buffer Chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution.
Created by: 56291