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GED Life Science

Lesson 3 Human Body Systems

TermDefinition
cells the smallest unit of life
tissues groups of similar cells that perform a specific function, such as muscle tissue
organs groups of tissues that perform a function, such as the stomach
body systems groups of organs working together to perform a function, such as digestion
Human body systems this includes circulatory, respiratory, digestive, nervous, immune, endocrine, reproductive, urinary, skeletal and muscular
circulatory system system which includes the heart and blood vessels; main function is to move the blood throughout the body (aka cardiovascular system)
heart a muscle that contracts to pump blood
arteries blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to any part of the body
capillaries one of the tiny blood vessels between the terminations of the arteries and the beginnings of the veins
veins blood vessels conveying blood from various parts of the body to the heart
respiratory system system which consists of the nose, throat, trachea (windpipe), and lungs; function is to take oxygen into the body when we inhale and to get rid of waste (carbon dioxide) when we exhale
bronchi two tubes that branch off the trachea (windpipe), one goes into each lung
bronchioles smaller tubes that branch off the bronchi
alveolus a tiny spherical sac that is on the end of each bronchiole
digestive system system which consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine; function is to break down food into nutrients, which are used for cell processes including the production of energy, and to get rid of digestive wastes
saliva a watery fluid, secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands, that functions in the tasting, chewing, and swallowing of food, moistens the mouth, and starts the digestion of starches
enzymes any of various proteins originating from living cells and capable of producing certain chemical changes in organic substances by catalytic action, as in digestion.
villus/villi one of the minute, wormlike processes on certain membranes, especially on the mucous membrane of the small intestine, where they serve in absorbing nutriment
nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; function is to receive, process, and transmit information, controlling body activities
cerebrum one of three main parts of the brain, which controls functions such as thinking, seeing, and speaking
cerebellum one of the three main parts of the brain, which coordinates movement and position
brainstem one of the three main parts of the brain, which controls breathing and heart rate
Created by: jpiittmann