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OHB First Exam

Interstitial fluid the fluid outside the cell
Intracellular fluid: fluid inside a cell
Selective permeability: a barrier allows some substances to pass through it while excluding others.
Active transport carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion. require protein carriers that combine specifically and reversibly with the substances to be transported across the membrane. requires energy
Passive transport a movement of biochemicals and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes that DOES NOT require energy
Diffusion is the process by which molecules (and ions) move away from a region where they are more concentrated to a region where they are less concentrated.
Filtration selectively permeable membrane in which some things are forced through, and others are kept, depending on the pressure. is the process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane (or capillary wall) by fluid or hydrotatic, pressure`.
Osmosis movement of WATER through a selectively permeable membrane to create equilibrium of water / solute on either side of the membrane
Osmotic pressure: the amount of pressure needed to stop osmosis. greater the concentration of particles, greater the OP
Hypertonic a solution that contains more solutes, or dissolved substances, than there are inside cells related to osmosis - the natural tendancy of water to reach equilibrium
Hypotonic a solution that contains fewer solutes (and therefore more water) than the cell does related to osmosis - the natural tendancy of water to reach equilibrium
Isotonic an isotonic solution has the same solute and water concentrations as cells do. Doesn’t exact any change. related to osmosis - the natural tendancy of water to reach equilibrium
What are the functions of the cell (plasma) membrane? - protects the cell; - selective permeability regulates what comes in and what goes out; - communicates with other cells with receptors that project from the surface
Ribosome function? protein factories. located on the outside of the rough ER
Endoplasmic Reticulum complex tunnel system to transport proteins within the cell. Rough, smooth, sarcoplasmic ER.
Golgi Apparatus packing plant for proteins
Lysosomes sacs of digestive enzymes. destroys debris and foreign matter. when a cell dies, lysosomes are released and the cell self destructs.
Peroxisomes sacs of oxidase enzymes. detox cells they disarm ‘free radicals’
Mitochondria where fuel (glucose) is broken down to create ATP. power plants - where the Krebs cycle happens and ATP is synthesized;
Centrioles mitotic spindle form between these structures in mitosis. make cilia and flagella. only active during cell division.
Cilia hair-like projections on the outside of cells for mobility
Flagella tails to help move cells along
Cytosol a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water. organelles are suspended in the cytosol
Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more components eg. salt water (sodium and water)
Solvent 1 part of a solution the substance present in the largest amount in a solution. In the body, water is the chief solvent.
Solute 2nd part of a solution (other than the solvent) eg in saline, salt is the solute
Filtration -selectively permeable membrane in which some things are forced through, and others are kept, depending on the pressure. -the process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane (or capillary wall) by fluid or hydrotatic, pressure`
Endocytosis means 'into the cell' ATP-requiring processes that take up, or engulf, extra cellular substances by enclosing them in a small membranous vesicle.
Phagocytosis means ‘cell eating’ the endocytosis process used by relatively large particles such as bacteria or dead body cells that have separated from the external environment
Pinocytosis means cell drinking the cell gulps droplets of extracellular fluid - The plasma membrane indents to form a tiny pit, and then its edges fuse around the droplet of dissolved proteins or fats. important for cells whose function is absorption.
Phases of mitosis I-PMAT
Interphase -the cell grows and carries on its usual metabolic activities -active phase: growth, metabolic activities, DNA replication (in preparation for cell division)
DNA replication process -the DNA double helix uncoils and separates into two nucleotide chains. -each strand is a template for building a new nucleotide strand -two DNA double helixes then exist that are identical to the original one
diff between mitosis and meiosis - process used by all cells in the body except sex cells. it spawns identical cells. - meiosis is what sex cells (eggs and sperm) do that spawns different cells, thus allowing sex cells to spawn different progeny. process is a double cycle of mitosis
Prophase nuclear membrane dissolves, chromatin fibers coil tightly to form chromosomes (forming the classic X shape that we know – each side of the X is a mirror image of the other side)
Metaphase chromosomes align along the equator of cell (middle line – metaphase plate)
Anaphase chromatids separate at their centromeres and start to move away to opposite ends of the cell
Telophase chromosomes uncoil into chromatin and nucleus forms. Cell develops cleavage furrow and then divides into two
Cytokinesis -is the division of the cytoplasm – and the actual cell -begins during late anaphase, and completes during telophase -creates a cleavage furrow over the midline of the spindles that squeeze and pinch the mass into two parts, dividing the cell
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid genetic material in each cell the blueprint for protein synthesis.
players in the the process of protein synthesis and DNA transcription, in order DNA mRNA - messenger tRNA - transfer rRNA -ribosomal
gene a DNA segment that carries the information for building one protein or polypeptide chain
tissue a group of cells that work together to accomplish some sort of goal
Epithelium the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body - Covers and lines - Has one free surface - Avascular – lack of blood vessels - Reproduces readily - Protects - Secretes absorbs, excretes - sense
Created by: rcipryk