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Language Development

Language Development Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Linguistic modes Speaking and listening-Expressive and receptive.. Writing and reading- expressive and receptive.. Signing
Language Part Of Communication
Term we use to describe how a group exchanges information, ideas, needs and wants.... and Linguistic and Extra linguistic components (BIG PICTURE) Communication
Speaking and Listening Expressive and receptive
Writing and Reading Expressive and Receptive
Signing Linguistic mode
Extralinguistic Paralinguistic, Metalinguistic, Nonlinguistic
Paralinguistic Intonation, stress, rate, emotion
Metalinguistic ability to think and talk about language ability to judge language correctness and appropriateness
Nonlinguistic gestures, facial expression, proximity
multifaceted and highly complex phenomenon utilizing several systems and modalities Language
Basic systems that underlie language biological, cognitive, social
Three components of language with five parameters form, content, use
Form Phonology, morphology, syntax
Content semantic
Use pragmatic
Phonology Study of speech sounds of languages
Phoneme smallest linguistic unit of sound that signals a difference in meaning
English has how many phonemes 43
Allophones Same phoneme that differs slightly
Phonological Rules Determine what sounds are used and in what sequence
Morphology Internal organization of words.. Words consist of one ore more morphemes
Morpheme smallest grammatical unit which cannot be separated from the word without changing the meaning of the word
Free Morpheme can stand alone with meaning
Bound Morpheme Must be attached to a free morpheme or other bound morphemes
Derivational Prefixes and suffixes
Inflectional Plural s, possessive 's, ing, ed
Syntax Organizational rules that determine word order, sentence organization and word relationships... how we sequence words in sentences
Semantics System of language with rules governing the meaning or content of words or grammatical units.. Vocabulary
World Knowledge Individual's autobiographical and experiential understanding and memory of particular events which includes the cultural interpretation of this knowledge
Word Knowledge Word and symbol definitions based on an individual's world knowledge
Pragmatics How we use language, register, social interaction rules
Code used in communication Language
Nature Biological
Nurture Enviorment
Behavior Theory Mowrer, Skinner, Osgood... Behaviorist Theory-nuture.... Language is a subset of learned behaviors... operant conditioning
Language is based on Modeling, imitation, practice, reinforcement
Emphasis on the form of language Grammatical structures
Psycholinguistic Theory Generative or Nativist-nature. Emphasis on language form. Innate capacity for language. Biological basis for language.
Linguistic Universalas (features) Linguistic processing occurs on 2 levels
Phrase Structure Rules Universal
Transformational Rules Not Universal
Constituents Noun and verb phrases
Languages have a finites set of rules
Two-Tier mental model: Deep and surface structure
Language acquisition device LAD... Contains universal underlying linguistic principles or phrase structure rules.... Enables each child to process incoming language
Child language is not a... mirror of adult language
Deep structure The idea/meaning
Surface Structure Syntactic structure that represents that meaning
Semantic approach assumes that content or meaning precedes language form
Semanticists assume that the common rules represent a general pattern of cognitive development, not innate structure.. that thought precedes language.
Referential context Underlying semantics and relationships, influences if not determines the word which can be used in any given position in an utterance/sentence
Case Grammar a generative system that can explain the influence of semantics on the syntactic structure and specifies the semantic relationships that determine that structure
CASE specific semantic function for certain noun phrases. only a limited number of nouns would be appropriate in a given structure
Case Function Marked by word order. form structure that provides a basis for syntax.
7 Major universal cases Agentive,Dative, Experiencer, Factitive, Instrumental, Locative, Objective
Sociolinguistic concentrate on Underlying reasons or social communicative functions of language
Psycholinguistic Theory: A semantic/cognitive model Modularity theory-nature. Only theory of language processing and semantics holds a strong impact in the structure of syntax and LD development
Sociolinguistic Theory Vygotsky-nurture. Does not focus on the structural aspects of language. centers on the communication unit required to convey meaning.
Language USE (Pragmatics) in communication is central to the linguistic process and to development of language
Effective Communication Motivation for language acquisition
Speech-act theory The speech act is a unit of communication that conveys the speakers conceptual representations and intentions.
Intrapersonal function Internal language is used for memory, problem solving and concept development.
Interpersonal function of langue is communication
Speech Act Linguistic unit that can be divided into two elements.
Propositional Force Conceptual content, meaning
Illocutionary force attitude or intention
Dore (1974) Primitive speech act. An utterance consisting formally of a single act or single prosodic sound.
Nine Categories primitive speech act labeling, repeating, answering, requesting, repeating, answering, requesting action, requesting answer, calling, greeting, pretesting and practicing
Language acquisition is Process of socialization
Role of the child's communication partners is Crucial
adult operates as a provider an expander and idealizer of utterances while interacting with the child
Joint or shared reference is the achievement Common referent
Attention on a common object or event , with a sequence of behaviors such as eye contact, calling child's name, pointing, naming social interaction
the speech act or lack of greatly promotes or hinders language development Attention
Three Developmental stages of early communication Perlocutionary, Illocutionary, Locutionary
Perlocutionary behaviors are undifferentiated
Illocutionary use of conventional gestures and vocalization
locutionary words convey intentions
Two toddler generative systems Segmentation and Topic-comment. Can occur at the same time
Segmentation utterances are generated regarding the situation activity
Topic-Comment structure the child establishes the topic, object or event and then provides information
Emergentist Theory Asserts that language is a function of the brains solution to exchanging a complicated set of meaning between people . Grammar is brains solution.
Linguistic representations(cognitive processes) Physical components of the brain, active in language processing. The manner in which its process information. and partners engage.
EO: overgeneralization errors He falled|fall[EO:fell] down.
EW Other word-level errors.That boy were[EW:was] jump/ing.
EU Utterance-level errors. Why this thing not work [EU]
EV verb error That boy were[EV:was] scared
EP Him[EP:he] is my friend Pronoun error
EX After that the dog that[EX] jump/ed out Extraneous word
NSW That thingie[NSW] is funny. Nonspecific word.
Created by: JenPotts