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SLS Bio12 Biomolecul

SLS Bio12 Biomolecules (C.Chan)

TermDefinition
acid a substance that can react with a base to make a salt.
adenosine triphosphate a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions
amino acid an organic compound, and it serves as a building block for proteins.
base a phosphoric ester of a nucleoside; the basic structural unit of nucleic acids
buffer an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH
carbohydrate a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that is a major source of energy for animals
complementary base pairing describes the manner in which the nitrogenous bases of the DNA molecules align with each other
dehydration synthesis The monomers combine with each other via covalent bonds to form larger molecules known as polymers. In doing so, monomers release water molecules as byproducts.
deoxyribonucleic acid a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information
dipeptide one molecule, which consists of 2 amino acids that are joined by a single peptide bond
disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar composed of two monosaccharides. It is formed when two sugars are joined together and a molecule of water is removed.
double helix the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA
hemoglobin the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs
hydrogen bonding electrostatic attraction between polar molecules that occurs when a hydrogen (H) atom bound to a highly electronegative atom
hydrolysis a reaction involving the breaking of a bond in a molecule using water
lipid molecules that contain hydrocarbons and make up the building blocks of the structure and function of living cells e.g. fats, oils, waxes, certain vitamins, hormones
monomer a molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules to form a polymer
monosaccharide one sugar, the simplest form of carbohydrates
neutral fat uncharged fat produced by the dehydration synthesis of one or more fatty acids with an alcohol like glycerol
nucleic acids organic molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next.
nucleotide organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA
organic of, relating to, or denoting compounds containing carbon
peptide bond a covalent chemical bond formed between two amino acid molecules.
pH a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution, concentration of H+
phospholipid a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes, structure generally consists of two hydrophobic fatty acid "tails" and a hydrophilic "head"
polarity how equally bonding electrons are shared between atoms
polymer a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits
polypeptide chains of amino acids
polysaccharide polymeric carbohydrate molecule composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together
primary structure linear sequence of amino acids and the location of any disulfide (-S-S-) bridges
protein large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
quaternary structure the number and arrangement of multiple folded protein subunits in a multi-subunit complex
r-group An abbreviation for any group in which a carbon or hydrogen atom is attached to the rest of the molecule
ribonucleic acid a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes
saturated fatty acid no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. That is, the chain of carbon atoms is fully "saturated" with hydrogen atoms.
secondary structure alpha-helix
solvent a substance that dissolves a solute, resulting in a solution
starch a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds, produced by plants
steroid A group of molecules that includes cholesterol
tertiary structure protein's geometric shape, a single polypeptide chain "backbone" with one or more protein secondary structures, the protein domains
unsaturated fatty acid there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain
nitrogen base a nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base
Created by: 983180221738643