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Cell Structure

Cell Structure and Function Notes

TermDefinition
Discovery of the Cell Mid 1600's scientist began using microscope to observe living things
Robert Hooke Used Microscope to observe thin slice of Cork - dead plant material
Corked seemed to be made of box-like chambers - Hooke called Cell
Cell Theory All Living things composed of cells
Cells Are the basic unit of STRUCTURE and FUNCTION in living things.
New cells are produced from Existing Cells
Organisms Made of ONE CELL- UNICELLULAR organisms
Example of Organism is BACTERIA
Multicellular Made of MANY CELLS organisms.
Example of Multicellular Plants and Animals
Homeostasis Process by which organism maintain a relatively stable internal environment
Each cell must be in what with it's environment, exchange food, waste, H20 Balance
Prokaryotic Organisms that do not have a distinct nucleus
Example of Prokaryotic BACTERIA
Eukaryotic Organisms with cells that have true nucleus and organelles
Example of Eukaryotic Plants, animals, fungi
Organelles Specialized cell parts or "Little Organs"
Cytoplasm Gel-like medium that holds the organelle in position
Nucleus Control center of the cell
Nuclear Membrane Double Membrane that SURROUNDS THE NUCLEUS.
Chromatin HEREDITARY INFORMATION inside the nucleus.
Ribosomes Makes Protein
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (Rough ER) Makes and TRANSPORT PROTEIN within the cell
Called Rough ER because The Ribosomes along the membrane and found on its surface.
Rough ER has extensive network continuous with Nuclear Envelope
Function of the Rough ER to Modify and transport proteins.
Most of the Proteins for Rough ER are packaged into Vesicles
The Vesicles of Rough ER are shuttled to the Golgi apparatus
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth ER) MANUFACTURES AND TRANSPORT LIPIDS and other materials within the cell.
The Function of Smooth ER breaks down GLYCOGEN detoxifies POISONS, and stores CALCIUM.
Called Smooth ER because It lacks ribosomes found on its surface
Golgi apparatus Process and packages proteins and other substances produced in the ER
The Function of Golgi Apparatus is Receives, Modifies, and ships products by way of vesicles into the CYTOSOL - CELL MEMBRANE
Lysosomes Cleans up the cell and digest unwanted materials
Found in only Animal Cells Lysosomes
Lysosomes contain round sacs containing Enzymes that breakdown and recycle used cell components. Also used as a defense against bacteria and viruses
Vacuoles Sac like structures may be used as storage for WATER, MOLECULE, OR WASTE.
Plants cells usually contains a LARGE VACUOLE that fills most of the cell - pressure from this large vacuole helps plant support themselves.
Mitochondria ENERGY SOURCE of the cell.
Cell Wall Provides support and Protection for cells.
Chloroplast Makes glucose using the energy from the sun (Photosynthesis)
Double- walled organelle with inner folds to Increase surface area
Mitochondria uses Glucose to manufacture energy in the form of ATP
Mitochondria has it's own DNA
Chloroplast is found in Plant Cell
Chloroplast contains Chlorophyll and their own DNA
Chloroplast harvest energy from the Sun to produce ATP through photosynthesis
Centrioles Found in Animal cells only.
Centrioles only bundle of Microtubules that play a role in cell division.
Cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments that helps cells MAINTAIN ITS SHAPE.
Cytoskeleton is composed of Protein fibers known as microtubules.
Cytoskeleton provide motility for some cells in the form of Cilia or Flagella
Extensive cytoskeleton found in Animal Cells
Cilia Like little hairs
Flagella Like a tail
Specialized parts of the Cell for Movement Cilia and Flagella
The Structure of cells Is HOW IT IS BUILT
The Function of a cell Is WHAT IT DOES
Example of Plant Cell Leaf Cell and Root Cell
Leaf Cell Contains MANY CHOLORPLAST TO maximize PHOTSYNTHESIS
Root Cell Contain MANY VACUOLES to maximize water and starch storage.
Example of Animal Cell Epithelial Cell
Epithelial Cell Have VILLI to increase NUTRIENT ABSORPTION; found in the intestines.
Muscle Cell Contain MANY MITOCHONDRIA to produce more energy for movement
Nerve Cell Have fibers called DEDRITES that allow nerve cells to COMMUNICATE with each other.
Created by: spotsville2