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LS LSAF Chapter 2

Cells

TermDefinition
Cell Membrane Outer covering for cells. It is semi-permeable. It allows some things through but not others.
Cytoplasm Clear, gelatin-like substance inside of cells in which all life processes take place. The nutrient carrying material inside cells.
Prokaryote A division of creatures whose cells have no internal membrane-bound organelles. Commonly called "bacteria". They have no nucleus. They have specialized cell walls made of murein (Peptidoglycan).
Eukaryote A division of creatures whose cells havemembrane-bound organelles.
Cell Wall Tough, rigid, outer coverings that protect the cell and give it shape.
Lignin Chemical in plant cell walls that makes them rigid.
Pectin Chemical in plant cell walls that binds cells to their neighbors. Especially prevalent in fruit. Used to make jelly.
Organelle A unit of protoplasm responsible for specific functions within the cell. A "little organ".
Nucleus Control center of the cell. Contains genetic material for the cell (DNA).
Cell Smallest unit of living protoplasm.
Tissue A group of cells working together to perform a function that an individual cell could not perform on its own.
Organ A group of tissues working together to perform a function that an individual tissue could not perform on its own.
System (Organ System) A group of organs working together to perform a function that an individual organ could not perform on its own.
Organism A group of systems working together to perform a function that an individual system could not perform on its own.
Zacharias Jansen 1595 Dutch man who invented the microscope.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1670's Used the microscope to look at mold, pollen, and lice. Called creatures in pond water "Wee Beasties".
Cell Theory Cell is the basic unit of organization in organisms. All organisms are made of cells. Living cells come from other living cells.
Virus A strand of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coat.
Host Cell Cell in which a virus reproduces.
Edward Jenner 1796 Created the first vaccine.
Robert Hooke 1665 Created the term "cells" to describe individual units of cork. Published "Micrographia" which contained many hand-drawings of microscopic observations.
Matthias Schleiden 1830 Observed plant cells under a microscope. Concluded that all plants are made of cells.
Theodor Schwann 1837 Concluded that all animals are made of cells.
Rudolph Virchow 1855 Concluded that all cells originate from pre-existing cells.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid. The genetic information of a cell.
Ribosome Organelle that makes proteins in a cell.
Mitochondrion Organelle that makes energy (ATP) from food (glucose).
Golgi Apparatus / Body Organelle that packages chemical substances for transport inside or outside the cell. Fold proteins into special shapes to make them useful for cells.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Organelle responsible for transporting chemicals in the cell. Also, responsible for making lipids (fats).
Protoplasm Cytoplasm plus all organelles inside of a cell.
Lysosome Organelle responsible for digestion inside a cell. Destroys invading particles and/or damaged or disfunctional organelles.
Vacuole Organelle responsible for storage storage inside a cell.
Archaea A division of creatures similar in appearance to prokaryotes, but unique in many ways. Many live in extreme environments.
Chloroplast Organelle in which photosynthesis takes place.
Homeostasis The ability to control proper conditions inside no matter what is happening outside an organism
Peroxisome Membranous sac of oxidase enzymes. Detoxifies chemicals within the cell.
Centriole Involved in forming spindle during mitosis as well as precursors for flagella and cilia.
Nuclear Envelope Plasma membrane surrounding nucleus. Controls what enters and leaves the nucleus.
Created by: MrGross