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CPBio CH 18 Ecology

CH 18 Intro to Ecology

Ecology The study of interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment
Interdependence Survival of organisms depends on how they interact with the living and nonliving environment
ecological model a way of representing or describing an ecological system
biosphere the part of earth that contains life- atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere
ecosystem the abiotic and biotic factors in an area
community many different species living within an area
population one single species living within an area
organism any living thing
biotic living features of an environment
abiotic nonliving features of an environment
tolerance curve graphs that show an organism's performance versus an environmental variable
acclimation when organisms adjust their tolerance for an abiotic factor within their life time
adaptation a genetic change in a species or population that occurs from generation to generation over time
conformers organisms that do not regulate their internal conditions. Otherwise known as cold-blooded or ectotherms
regulators organisms that regulate their internal conditions. Otherwise known as warm-blooded or endotherms
how to organisms escape unsuitable environments? dormancy, migration, hibernation, estivation...and others
dormancy a state of reduced metabolic activity
generalists species with broad niches ex: raccoon
specialist species with narrow niches ex: panda
niche an organism's specific role or way of life within its environment
producer organism that can make its own food- also know as an autotroph
chemosynthesis a way that producers make their own food by using chemicals deep within the earth instead of sunlight
gross primary productivity the rate at which producers in an ecosystem capture energy and make their own food
biomass any organic (from living things) material produced in an ecosystem
net primary productivity the amount of energy (stored as biomass) that is available to consumers
what accounts for most of the variation in primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems? light, temperature, and precipitation
what accounts for most of the variation in primary productivity in aquatic ecosystems? light and availability of nutrients
consumer an organism that must eat to gain energy - also known as a heterotroph
herbivore an organism that eats plant material
carnivore an organism that eats animal products (meat)
omnivore an organism that eats both plant and animal products
detritivore consumers that feed on waste including organisms that have recently died
decomposer any detritivore that causes decay and recycles nutrients.
trophic level an organisms position in a sequence of energy transfers (its "eating level")
food web many food chains linked together for an ecosystem
food chain a single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms within an ecosystem.
how much energy is transferred to each trophic level? 10%
what limits the amount of trophic levels within a food chain? energy is reduced at each step and eventually becomes to low to support another trophic level
every time energy is transferred from a trophic level some of that energy is released as _____ and some of the energy is used by that organism for their ________. heat / metabolism
biogeochemical cycle how chemicals such as water/nitrogen/carbon/phosphorus cycle through the abiotic and biotic aspects of Earth.
groundwater water in the soil or in underground formations of porous rock
nitrogen fixation the process by which bacteria convert nitrogen in the atmosphere into nitrates (a form of nitrogen plants can use to grow)
evaporation, transpiration, and precipitation important parts of the water cycle
transpiration the process in which plants take in water through their roots and release water through their leaves (aka "plant sweating")
where do nitrogen fixing bacteria live they live freely in the soil or in the roots of certain plants such as beans/soy/peas/clover
denitrification process by which nitrates are broken down and released as nitrogen gas back into the atmosphere.
how do animals obtain the nitrogen and phosphorus they need? by eating plants that use the nitrogen/phosphorus to grow. Animals can NOT absorb nitrogen from the soil.
which biogeochemical cycle lacks an atmospheric component? phosphorus
why do plants and animals need phosphorus? animals: use it to form bones, teeth, and parts of molecules like DNA. Plants: use to form parts of molecules like DNA and for growing.
how have humans influenced the carbon cycle? burning fossil fuels and cutting down trees. This adds to increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and increased global warming
what is photosynthesis the part of the carbon cycle where producers take in carbon dioxide to make their own food and release oxygen
what is cellular respiration the part of the carbon cycle where living things take in oxygen to be able to convert their food into energy and release carbon dioxide.
Created by: ruth.baker