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Maintaining a Balanc

Maintaining a Balance Terminology for revision

TermDefinition
Distal tubule part of the nephron where water is extracted
DNA abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid; the molecule which makes up the genetic material of the chromosmes
Effector Part of an organism which produces a response (e.g. heart, diaphragm).
Ectotherm organism that changes its body temperature by using heat from the environment; plants and most animals except for mammals and birds are ectothermic
enantiostasis the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment.
endocrine system hormonal system that produces internal secretions which act upon organs
endotherm animal that regulates its body temperature using heat generated by its metabolism; mainly birds and mammals are endothermic
enzyme a highly specialised cellular protein that reduces the amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction, thereby increasing the speed of reactions; the names of enzymes often end in -ase (e.g. cellulase, which digests cellulose).
Eukaryotic Cells which have their genetic material (chromosomes) inside a nucleus bounded by a membrane and which have other membrane-bound organelles; includes cells of protists, fungi, animals and plants.
Endocrine System The system of glands that secrete hormones
Evaporative cooling Removing heat from the body by changing liquid water to water vapour using heat from the skins surface (eg. sweating) or from respiratory surfaces (eg. panting).
Excretion The elimination of harmful and unwanted products of metaoblism.
Excretory organs Organs involved in the removal of wastes (kidneys, lungs, skin)
Gene A unit of inheritance, usually part of a specific DNA molecule (chromosome)
Glomerulus A bunch of capillaries found in the vertebrate kidney.
Activation Energy The energy necessary to start a chemical reaction
Active Transport Movement of substances across a membrane by a process requiring expenditure of energy
Ambient Environmental or surrounding (eg.ambient temperature)
Ammonia Main nitrogenous waste product of bony fish; excreted diluted in large amounts of water
Angiosperms Flowering plants
Artery Blood vessel which carries blood away from the heart
Bowman's Capsule The capsule at the end of the vertebrate kidney which contains the glomerulus
Buffer A solution of two or more chemicals which prevent marked changes in hydrogen ion concentration (pH) when either an acid or base (alkali) is added to the system
Cambium Group of cells which divide to form new xylem and phloem cells
Capillary Microscopic blood vessels with walls one cell thick, across which materials are exchanged between blood and tissues
Cell Smallest unit of life capable of reproducing itself
Chromosome Structure made up of genetic material (DNA) and protein found mainly in the nucleus
Cohesion Attraction between molecules of water
Concentration The amount of a substance in a specific amount of mixture or solution. Normally expressed as weight per unit volume (eg. 25 grams of salt per litre of water; 25g/L) or as molarity
Denatured Structural change in proteins
Diffusion Movement of particles in gases, liquids or solutions from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
Stomates (stomata) Holes(pores) in the leaves of plants. These pores are controlled by two guard cells which regulate the loss of water from the leaves(transpiration)
Temperature Gradient Difference in temperature. Heat energy flows from an area of higher temperature to one of lower temperature.
Thyroid Gland Endocrine gland in the throat area which produces thyroid hormones.
Thyroid Hormones Hormones involved with regulating the level of body metabolism
Thyroid Regulating Hormone TSH; hormone released by the pituitary gland which controls the functioning of the thyroid gland
Tension Part of the transpiration-tension-cohesion theory of water movement in xylem tubes; it refers to the 'pulling' of water molecules from the roots to the leaves by negative pressure
Tissue A group of cells, usually of similar type, found in a multicellular organism having a specific
Created by: MCEBiology
 

 



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