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Sasser S7L2d

Life Science

TermDefinition
Diffusion The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane. (cell membrane
photosynthesis The process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food is called
Autotrophs Organisms that manufacture their own food by Photosynthesis. (plants)
heterotrophs Organisms that cannot make its own food, animals are called
Respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose (sugar)
Mitochondria powerhouses of cell.
cell cycle The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo is known as the
daughter cells During the cell cycle, a cell grows, prepares for division and divides into two new cells
Prophase Chromatin in the nucleus condenses to form chromosomes Pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus Spindle fibers form a bridge between the ends of the cell The nuclear envelope breaks down
Metaphase The chromosomes line up across the center of the spindle fiber apparatus Each chromosome attaches to the spindle fiber at its centromere.
Anaphase The centromeres split The two chromatids separate, and each chromatid becomes a new chromosome. The new chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell. The cell stretches out as the opposite ends are pushed apart.
Telophase The chromosomes begin to stretch out and lose their rod like appearance. A new nuclear envelope forms around each region of chromosomes.
Cytokinesis Cell membrane pinches around the middle of the cell The cell splits in two Each daughter cell ends up with an identical set of chromosomes and about half the organelles
prokaryotes (bacteria) is one, circular chromosome attached to the inside of the cell membrane
chromatids Duplicated chromosomes are called
Cell Cycle G1 - primary growth phase S – synthesis; DNA replicated G2 - secondary growth phase collectively these 3 stages are called interphase M - mitosis C - cytokinesis
eukaryotic cells store genetic information in chromosomes Most eukaryotes have between 10 and 50 chromosomes in their body cells Human body cells have 46 chromosomes or 23 identical pairs
Created by: bsasser