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Exam 1 part 2

Mechanism of antidote 2PAM regeneration of ACHE via hydrolysis of poison
What drugs produce a drastic dip in plasma ChE activity followed by a gradual increase Isofluorophate and 2PAM (sarin and atropine)
What is the shortest acting for cycloplegia tropicamide
Which is used to reduce broncho secretions and constriction to help treat asthma ipratropium
What would you expect if you had a problem with pseudocholinesterase succinylcholine
What are cholinergic receptors classified by muscarine and nicotine
Two different drugs that can achieve increased heart rate beta 1 agonist and muscarinic antagonist
What is the mechanism of myasthenia gravis autoimmune reaction
what is sued to treat motion sickness scopalamine
What does disulfiram inhibit aldehyde dehydrogenase MEOS
what is used for long term alcohol abuse therapy disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate
drug abuse by 8th graders inhalants, maryjuana, cocaine, lsd
if young adults go to heroin replacement therapy what is the drug used buprenorphine
what is true of buprenorphine all of the above
the pharmacologic use of methadone is to give a dose as potent as heroin to satisfy opiate craving false
drug class of choice for management of alcohol abstinence symptom benzodiazepines
mechanism of psychomotor stimulant action of amphetamine is blockade of vesicular membrane dopamine transporter true
what drug should a person experiencing cachexia take dronabinol
elimination of alcohol is what order zero
for stimulation of addication where is the release of dopamine from ventral tegmental area
varenicline (chantix) is efficacious for smoking cessation because you can smoke it false
Not FDA approved skin patch GH, insulin
weak acid mostly not ionized at 1 pH
Orphan drug act gives incentive for pharms to make orphan drugs
user fee act makes pharms pay for review fees at FDA
durham humphrey act difference between RX and otc
6 centers of FDA drug eval, biologic eval, food safety, devices, vet meds, toxicology
drug induced orthostatic hypertension category CV system
ibuprophen produces what CV symptom edema
grapefruit juice is substrate of CYP3A4 false
most common CYP CYP3A4/5
role of cytochrome c reductase reduce Fe3 to Fe2
sequence of events with P450 drug binds to oxidized P450, complex is reduced, molecular oxygen binds to reduce complex
Components of P450 heme, ferric ion 2+, cytochrome
first pass occurs in liver true
efflux transporter in intestinal cells and capillary endothelium of brain capillaries protein carbohydrate complex
Tetracycline side effect stains kids teeth
simple diffusion based on lipophilic nature of drug true
level of drug in blood to remain therapeutic optimal therapeutic plasma level
dose azithromycin for patient 500mg
risk of adverse effect to statin causing rhabdomyolysis clarithromycin
alcohol is contraindicated metronidazole
depends on absence of oxygen metronidazole
CYP2D6 is inhibited by fluoxetine, what is substrate codeine
phase of clinical trial to develop dose range phase II
UGT stands for Uridine glucuronosyl transferase
calcium pills plus tetracycline is what type of interaction problem with absorption
diabetic drug plus aspirin is what interaction protein displacement
prodrug used for anesthesia fospropofol
Erythromycin inhibits CYP3A4/5 so metabolism of diazepam will increase false
what is not a mode of excretion hepatic metabolism
throbocytpenia is what category effect hematologic
drug interaction between iron and tetracycline is absorption effect
nanoscale definition 1-100nm
eqn for Kel 0.693/T1/2
calssification of caugh respiratory effect
source of most drugs chemical synthesis
classification of dizziness CNS effect
who is tested for LD50 mice
thalidomide is used to treat multiple myeloma
lexicomp pharmacologic class of thalidomide antineoplastic
technique to allow production of a lot of chemicals in a short time combinatorial chemistry
discovered penicllin Fleming
weak acids absorbed where areas of lower pH
Not water miscible, semi solid ointment
water miscible, semi solid creams
water miscible, contains dissolved drug topically applied gels
water miscible, medication oral local orally applied gels
Parenteral liquid drug that is injected, (ie dental anesthesia)
morphine is (more/less) potent than demerol more
to form drug receptor complex it requires _____, to produce effect _______ affinity, intrinsic activity
LDR curve shows what efficacy, potency, ~mechanism of drug action
two drugs produce opposite effects physiologic antagonism
competitive reversible antagonism curve shifts where to the right
competitive irreversible antagonism curve shifts where right and max effect decreases
onset time for intramuscular ~5 mins
onset time for intravenous ~10 secs
Onset time for subcutaneous ~10-15 secs
efflux systems do what export drug back to circulation
these nonpolar lipophilic groups are best at simple diffusion ethyls, propyls, phenyls
Major eflux carrier in intestine and CNS capillary endothelium P-glycoprotein
main drug excretion routes pee, poo
main FDA function ensure safety of drug for consumer
food drug act 1906 first to establish guidlines
food drug cosmetic act 1938 requires drug safety, clinical tests, makes FDA
kefauver harris act 1962 requires proof of effectiveness in humans
controlled substances act 1970 creates schedules
hatch waxman act 1984 generics approved without testing
poison preventio act 1970 save the children
fda modernization act 1997 drugs that help with life threatening diseases get priority
drug safety oversight act 2005 monitors drugs after release
5 phases of drug development synthesis of new chem, safety eval, effective eval, new drug app, post market survey
margin of safety LD50/ED50
toxicity cell damage/tissue damage, usually intolerable
side effect undesired effect, usually tolerated
Issues with thalidomide caused 20% abnormal offspring in europe in 1960s
phase I metabolism occurs where liver
phase II metabolism is what conjugate with glucuronic acid, excretion by kidney
Hydrolysis metabolizes ester drugs
CYP2C19 Substrate: diazepam Inhibitor: fluoxetine
CYP1A2 substrate: theophylline Inhibitor: erythromycin
CYP2C9 substrate: warfarin Inhibitor: metronidazole
Antiplatelet prodrug for thrombosis clopidogrel
major drug interaction of the 1950s phenobarbital and warfarin
easier to identify the peak dose in IV or oral drugs oral
Ach is neurtransmitter for ____ while NE is NT for? all ganglia, sympathetic target organs
exceptions to Ach/NE neurtransmitter rule Adrenal medula doesnt ahve post ganglionic fibers, Sweat glands are innervated by SNS but transmitter is Ach, not NE
Acetyl CoA + Choline = acetylcholine
subtypes of nicotinic receptors NM (skeletal muscle), NN (Neuronal)
Ach binds to what subunit alpha
Muscarinic subtypes M1/3/5 (IP3/DAG), M2/4 (cAMP)
Action/Receptor for iris radial/dilator muscle mydriasis, a1
action/receptor for iris circular/constrictor muscle miosis, m3
In the heart, receptors B1/B2 _____ while M2 _____ accelerates, decelerates
M3 receptor in respiratory system is ____ for asthma patient while B2 is _____ bad, good
receptor in GI that causes movement M3
Levels of acetycholine (which is direct acting) acetylecholine, methacholine, carachol, bethanechol
Indirect acting cholinergic drugs do inhibit activity of ACHE, allowing Ach to build up
what reverses irreversables pralidoxime (pam/2pam)
can quaternary drugs make it to brain no, stay in periphery
diagnostic tool for myasthenia gravis edrophonium
treatment of myasthenia gravis neostigmine, pyridostigmine, ambenonium, atropine
treatment of glaucoma physostigmine, dysflos, eccothiopate
myocardial infarction can be treated with atropine
nondepolarizing blocker does, while depolarizing does blocks opening of channel, opens channel but blocks it up
botulinum toxin used for treatment of hemifacial spasm
migraines with aura vs migraines without 25 vs 75%
origin of migraines vascular and nervous (trigeminal)
two phases of migrain vasoconstriction, vasodilation
what enzymes are targets of drugs for alzheimers/parkins COMT, DDC, MAO2 (all of above)
what needs to cross BBB to work for Alz/parks selegeline
what combo therapy for alz is not reasonable tacarine and donepezil
what is normal goal of alz treatment preserve existing Ach
what is main goal of prophylactic 5HT-2 antagonists prevention of vasoconstriction by seratonin
What is most common drug for acute migrains sumatriptan
what is target of antagonists other than triptans CGRP
rule for treatment of migrains start simple
what causes alz neuronal degeneratino/ neuritic plaques containing AB Amyloids and Tau rich neruofibrillary...protein misfolding/buildup
genes involved in alz PS2/PS2/APP
ACEInhibitors for alz T / D / R Hydrochloride, Galantamine
NMDA antagonists for alz Memantine
Cardinal signs of parks tremor, rigidity, bradykinseia, akinesia, posture instability
issue with parks dopamine neurons dying
Created by: hawleyd11