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SLS Bio12 Biomolecul

SLS Bio12 Biomolecules

QuestionAnswer
acid a molecule or other entity that can donate a proton or accept an electron pair in reactions.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism
amino acid are the building blocks of all biological proteins.Genes are translated by RNA to amino acid chains
base are substances that accept protons from acids.
buffer Buffer solutions are used as a means of keeping pH at a nearly constant value in a wide variety of chemical applications.
carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen
complementary base pairing the nitrogenous bases of the DNA molecules align with each other. adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T)
dehydration synthesis Dehydration synthesis is the removing of the hydroxl(-OH) and the hydrogen atoms from two organic substances which merges them into one(covalent bond).
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) The molecule that carries genetic information in all living systems (see genetic code). The DNA molecule is formed in the shape of a double helix
dipeptide When two amino acids are joined together, a dipeptide is formed. A special chemical bond called a peptide bond holds together two amino acids.
double helix, structure of the DNA molecule.
hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body.
hydrogen bonding is the attractive force between the hydrogen attached to an electronegative atom of one molecule and an electronegative atom of a different molecule.
hydrolysis is a reaction involving the breaking of a bond in a molecule using water.
lipid are a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids
monomer is a molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules to form a polymer.
monosaccharide are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of one sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose,
Neutral fats are neutral because they are uncharged and do not contain acidic or basic groups. They are nonpolar and hydrophobic.
nucleic acids a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.
nucleotide are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA.
organic the chemistry of carbon compounds (other than simple salts such as carbonates, oxides, and carbides).
peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond formed between two amino acid molecules.
ph is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are alkaline or basic.
phospholipid are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes. They can form lipid bilayers because of their amphiphilic characteristic.
polarity the property of having poles or being polar.
polymer is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
polypeptide are chains of amino acids. Proteins are made up of one or more polypeptide molecules.
polysaccharide are polymeric carbohydrate molecule composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
primary structure of a protein is its linear sequence of amino acids and the location of any disulfide (-S-S-) bridges.
protein Proteins are macromolecules. They are constructed from one or more unbranched chains of amino acids; that is, they are polymers.
quaternary structure is the number and arrangement of multiple folded protein subunits in a multi-subunit complex.
R-group An abbreviation for any group in which a carbon or hydrogen atom is attached to the rest of the molecule.
ribonucleic acid (RNA) any of a class of single-stranded molecules transcribed from DNA in the cell nucleus or in the mitochondrion or chloroplast
saturated fatty acid s a fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain
secondary structure The most common type of secondary structure in proteins is the alpha-helix.
solvent is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or gas),
starch, is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
steroid comprise a group of cyclic organic compounds whose most common characteristic is an arrangement of seventeen carbon atoms in a four-ring structure
tertiary structure will have a single polypeptide chain "backbone" with one or more protein secondary structures, the protein domains
unsaturated fatty acid is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain
nitrogenous base s simply a nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base.
Created by: erinishiki